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The “Hardcore” Russian Neo-Nazi Group That Calls Ukraine Home

September 4, 2019

By Bellingcat Anti-Equality Monitoring

Translations: Русский

Written by Michael Colborne with contributions from Oleksiy Kuzmenko

They’re devoted to a brand of neo-Nazism so blatant, including openly glorifying Hitler, that even its leader admits is too “hardcore” for the public space. 

Wotanjugend, which its founder described in 2016 as an online “mini-university for supporters of right-wing ideology,” has praised far-right terrorists like Timothy McVeigh and Anders Breivik as “heroes.” Their website shares Russian-language translations and articles; offline they organize neo-Nazi concerts, host classes on “racial theory,” give firearms training sessions and even put on private concerts with a very subtle clues of neo-Nazism, such as a framed picture of Adolf Hitler flanked by swastikas on a candlelit altar.

The altar with a photo of Adolf Hitler and a Nazi flag at Wotanjugend’s “Fuhrernight” in May 2019

More recently they have become, like much of the global far-right, dedicated fans of the perpetrator of the March terrorist attacks on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. In a post after the attacks, Wotanjugend called the shooter a “vengeful Viking who has definitely earned his place in Valhalla.” 

But, as we reported in our previous investigation, Wotanjugend also promoted a Russian-language translation of the Christchurch shooter’s manifesto that got more than 25,000 views. However, they quietly removed it from their website after our investigation named them as promoters of the manifesto — and after Ukraine’s ambassador to New Zealand, in response to our investigation and subsequent comments from New Zealand’s Prime Minister, pledged that Ukraine would prosecute anyone distributing the manifesto. But Wotanjugend has not removed a separate post praising the shooter, nor have they removed the disturbing livestreamed video of the attacks that they had shared.

A Wotanjugend sticker reading “Blood, Fatherland, Faith” in Russian.

Wotanjugend was born in Russia, and publishes its online content almost exclusively in Russian. Today the self-described “hammer of National Socialism” is based in Ukraine and, for all intents and purposes, is part of the country’s far-right Azov movement that is trying to expand its domestic and international influence.

But Wotanjugend’s activities aren’t just limited to the web. In 2018 the head of Wotanjugend met with members of violent American neo-Nazi gang Rise Above Movement (RAM) in Kyiv. Wotanjugend also recently hosted a seminar that included lectures on race, firearms training and even a mock knife fight tournament. Moreover, the head of the group, Alexei Levkin, is hopeful he will receive Ukrainian citizenship, and has been a key figure in Azov’s public push to get Ukrainian citizenship for far-right friends from abroad who have joined their ranks.

With its message that includes terrorist fanboying and literally worship of Hitler, Wotanjugend continues to operate openly in Ukraine, using the country as a base to grow and to spread its message of hate worldwide.

A self-styled “elite neo-Nazi avant-garde” 

As we wrote in our previous investigation, Wotanjugend has its roots in the early-2000s neo-Nazi music scene in Russia. Its leaders and members, according to the authors of Militant Right-Wing Extremism in Putin’s Russia: Legacies, Forms and Threats, “styled themselves as an elite neo-Nazi avant-garde.” 

Many Russian far-right nationalists have, perhaps to the surprise of many, been anti-Kremlin and opposed Putin’s rule due to their perception of his soft stance on issues like immigration, best seen in the annual “Russian March”. While a large portion of the Russian far-right was instrumental in fomenting and fighting in the ongoing war in eastern Ukraine, some factions of the Russian far-right actually supported the protests on Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kyiv that mushroomed into the February 2014 revolution and have found room to operate within Ukraine. This included two of Wotanjugend’s leaders, Ivan Mikheev and Alexey Levkin. 

As Russian and Russian-led forces — including a sizable presence of Russian far-right nationalists, namely through the influence of Konstantin Malofeev and Eduard Limonov — began war in the Donbas in April 2014, some Wotanjugend members were among Russian far-right nationalists who came to Ukraine to fight with far-right pro-Ukrainian forces, including the Azov Battalion. Mikheev and Levkin, along with other Russian neo-Nazis like Roman Zheleznov, came to Ukraine in late 2014; Levkin and others remain in Ukraine five years later. 

Levkin is the most public face of Wotanjugend. In a 2019 interview with a magazine of Greece’s neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, Levkin described himself as a “political ideologist” in Azov’s National Militia, the paramilitary street wing of the Azov movement that Levkin called the “combat wing” of National Corps, Azov’s political party. 

Levkin has a past full of neo-Nazi extremism and violence in his native Russia. In 2006 he was arrested for double murder, but the charges were later dropped; he was also part of a neo-Nazi gang that allegedly took part in vandalism of Jewish and Muslim graves at a cemetery, a number of assaults and at least four murders. Levkin was reportedly detained for compulsory psychiatric treatment and released in 2011. 

Wotanjugend grew out of Levkin’s musical activities in Russia, which primarily included fronting the neo-Nazi band M8l8th (М8Л8ТХ in Russian; molot meaning hammer in Russian, with the two ‘O’s replaced by 8’s to form 88, “Heil Hitler” in neo-Nazi numeric code). In a 2016 interview, Levkin stated that “we created our online resource as a mini-university for supporters of right-wing ideology” and “a resource where our readers can obtain exhaustive information on the widest range of topics as far a right-wing worldview is concerned,” including what he dubbed “acts of heroism by Europeans.”

In an interview in January 2019, Levkin described Wotanjugend as mostly an online entity, one that was “way too hardcore to be represented in the public sphere” as an active physical organization. In its place, Levkin argued that “there’s already a movement that deserves support…I’m talking about [Azov’s] National Corps and the National Militia as the former’s power wing.”

Levkin posing with Andriy Biletsky, leader of Azov’s National Corps political party and defacto head of the Azov movement.

As we noted in our previous investigation, Levkin has links with another Azov figure, Olena Semenyaka, the National Corps’ ‘international secretary’ who is responsible for networking and forming relationships with far-right groups in other countries. Semenyaka was recently in Croatia along with other Azov figures to make preparations for an international far-right conference Azov plans to host in Zagreb in the fall of 2019. The two have helped organize a neo-Nazi record label and shop that sells neo-Nazi music and paraphernalia with open Nazi symbolism at the Azov movement’s Cossack House in central Kyiv.

A photo from a post on Wotanjugend’s Telegram channel promoting the “Militant Store” inside Azov’s Cossack House in central Kyiv, where swastika pendants (in the white circle, zoomed in) are clearly visible.

The first batch of tickets for the December Asgardsrei festival, a neo-Nazi music festival founded by Levkin in Russia that now takes place in Kyiv, went on sale last weekend at the Azov movement’s “Young Flame” event, an event filled with openly far-right, neo-Nazi rhetoric and imagery

Tickets for December’s neo-Nazi “Asgardsrei” concert on sale at the Azov movement’s “Young Flame” event on August 31, 2019.

Last year’s Asgardsrei concert featured neo-Nazi bands from across Europe including infamous Greek neo-Nazi band Der Stürmer, named after the Nazi newspaper, whose songs include “Piles of Pigheads in the Synagogue” and “Dawning Israel’s Perdition.”

Wotanjugend, however, does more than just host neo-Nazi concerts and post neo-Nazi propaganda online. In August 2019, a claimed 50 participants took part in Wotanjugend’s “Thule Signal” event, where they attended lectures on “racial theory,” received firearms training and even took part in a mock knife fight tournament filled with Azov chest salutes and Azov handshakes

A screenshot from a video of Wotanjugend’s “Thule Signal” seminar, featuring a mock knife fighting tournament

Participants at Wotanjugend’s “Thule Signal” seminar giving a ‘traditional’ Azov handshake grasping each others’ forearms.

Part of Wotanjugend’s event took place at an Azov facility in Kharkiv, a “nationalist hub” whose opening was attended by Andriy Biletsky. 

Firearms training at Wotanjugend’s “Thule Signal” seminar at an Azov movement “nationalist hub” in Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Levkin has also met with members of the Rise Above Movement (RAM), a violent American white supremacist group. RAM once described themselves as the “premier MMA club of the Alt-Right,” and visited Kyiv in 2018 as guests of the Azov movement, meeting with Semenyaka and others. Four of RAM’s members were charged in 2018 for violence at rallies in 2017, though a judge dismissed their case on First Amendment grounds in June 2019. 

The 2018 FBI criminal complaint against the organization notes that 2018 Instagram post pictured RAM’s leadership meeting with Levkin on their trip to Ukraine. The post, now deleted, stated that “it was an honor to meet the singer and patriot from #m8l8th.”

Excerpt of 2018 FBI criminal complaint mentioning “the singer” from M8l8th, Alexei Levkin.

Wotanjugend’s links with Ukraine’s Azov movement are especially noteworthy as Ukraine’s new Cabinet of Ministers was announced in late August, a cabinet that still includes powerful interior minister Arsen Avakov, widely seen as the patron and protector of the Azov movement. Some reports have suggested Avakov kept his post, at least for the short-term, by promising to limit the power and influence of far-right groups like Azov.

Wotanjugend’s terrorist “heroes” 

A whole section on Wotanjugend’s website is dedicated to “heroes” — articles about famous Nazi-era and neo-Nazi figures, including perpetrators of far-right terrorist acts. 

Some of these “heroes” include Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh; Wotanjugend called him a “lonely hero” and shared an article praising him on the anniversary of his executions for his 1995 act of terror. The graphic Wotanjugend shared of McVeigh featured the ‘life’ and ‘death’ runes formerly used by the SS. 

Anders Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 terror attacks in Norway, is another “hero” to Wotanjugend, whom they called “the last Viking of the northern seas.” Their website even features a translation part of the rambling speech Breivik gave at his trial in 2012. Wotanjugend also wrote that American neo-Nazi David Lane, who was sentenced to 190 years in prison for a series of crimes that included taking part in the murder of a Jewish talk radio host, was “a hero of our times.” Lane was the author of the “14 words,” a common white supremacist and neo-Nazi slogan. 

Another “hero,” as previously mentioned is the Christchurch shooter. In a post after the attacks Wotanjugend called the shooter a “true Viking,” a “vengeful Viking who has definitely earned his place in Valhalla.” While Wotanjugend apparently deleted their translation of the shooter’s manifesto from their website after our previous investigation, the entire livestreamed video of the attacks is still available in its entirety on its Telegram channel, along with memes praising the shooter.

Literally Hitler

Another one of Wotanjugend’s “heroes” is someone whose birthday they called “a joyful and wonderful holiday” — Adolf Hitler. 

A flyer for Wotanjugend’s “Fuhrernacht.”

Wotanjugend are inspired by what academics and researchers refer to as esoteric Nazism or esoteric Hitlerism, a brand of neo-Nazism that incorporates often bizarre mystical, occult adaptations of Nazi ideology, including venerating Adolf Hitler as a literal godlike figure.

In May 2019, Wotanjugend hosted a private event called “Fuhrernight” in Kyiv, which featured Nazi flags, photos of Adolf Hitler on an altar surrounded by candles. It also featured a reading of hagiographic Hitler poems by another Russian neo-Nazi who teaches yoga at Azov’s Cossack House, and has a visible tattoo of esoteric Nazi figure Savitri Devi, who believed that Hitler was an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu.  

Levkin’s own Hitler worship isn’t hard to find. Another band of Levkin’s is publicly called “AKVLT” — or, Adolfkvlt, as the group’s previous releases make clear. 

Releases from Levkin’s band “AKVLT” — “Adolfkvlt.”

According to social media from the record label and shop affiliated with Wotanjugend, Adolfkvlt will be performing live at Asgardsrei in Kyiv in December 2019. 

“To sing about murder, one has to kill”

Levkin’s main neo-Nazi music output is through his band M8l8th. The band is no mere hobby for him; in an interview earlier this year with a magazine of Greece’s neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, Levkin spoke about how “all this activity,” from working with Azov, organizing Asgardsrei and playing in M8l8th, is part of his ideological mission. 

Lyrics from M8l8th’s albums, almost all of which are available for purchase both on Amazon and/or on the Apple iTunes Store, leave no doubt about that mission. Many M8l8th songs are also available on YouTube, where apparent fans from around the globe leave messages of support in the comments.

One M8l8th song available for purchase on both Amazon and Apple’s iTunes Store, “The Echo of Future War,” features lyrics referencing “the dirty blood of kikes” (“в грязной крови жидов” —  жид, zhid, is an antisemitic slur in Russian) and fighting until “the damned Jew has croaked” (“подох проклятый еврей”). 

A M8l8th song available on Amazon featuring lyrics referencing “the dirty blood of kikes” (“в грязной крови жидов” — жид, zhid, is an antisemitic slur in Russian) and fighting until “the damned Jew has croaked” (“подох проклятый еврей”)

Another M8l8th song, available for purchase on Apple’s iTunes Store, takes lyrics directly from the Horst Wessel Song, the anthem of the Nazi party from 1930 to 1945, including the line “millions look upon the swastika full of hope.”

Albums from neo-Nazi band M8l8th on sale on Apple iTunes Store.

Another song, available from Apple’s iTunes Store, features lyrics like “preachers of Kabbalah, offspring thereof/labour in Death Camps, burn in furnace fire.” Another song is called “Buchenwald,” a clear reference to the Nazi concentration camp; it’s available for purchase on both Amazon and the Apple iTunes Store.

“To sing about war, one has to fight,” Levkin told neo-Nazi Golden Dawn’s magazine. “To sing about murder, one has to kill.”

Quest for Ukrainian citizenship

But Levkin and other Russian far-right, neo-Nazi figures in Ukraine have a common, key goal: gaining Ukrainian citizenship. The Azov movement has long been protesting and pushing for Ukraine’s laws to be changed to make it easier to grant citizenship to foreigners who came to Ukraine to defend against Russian and Russian-led forces in the country’s east. It is, of course, true that a minority of foreigners who came to fight for Ukraine in 2014-15 were far-right extremists or neo-Nazis; nonetheless, it has been Azov that has pushed the citizenship issue most publicly and directly.

Many of these foreign extremists, like Levkin, were neo-Nazis who came and signed up to fight in far-right forces like the Azov Battalion, and have stayed in Ukraine since. Figures like Levkin and others from Russia, they argue, can’t return home because of being “wanted for political reasons,” in Levkin’s words. Ukrainian citizenship would do more than just make it easier for Russian ‘exile’ neo-Nazis to stay in Ukraine — it would also grant them visa-free access to the European Union for visits of up to 90 days. 

Alexey Levkin (right, in brown shirt) marching in an Azov movement protest on June 4, 2019, urging Ukrainian president Zelenskyy to pass a law to make it easier to grant citizenship to foreign fighters in Ukraine, like Levkin himself.

Azov’s efforts have appeared, at least initially, to have yielded fruit: Ukraine’s parliament in June passed a law that would streamline the process of granting citizenship to foreigners who came to fight on Ukraine’s side. But President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has yet to sign the bill to officially make it law, and there is no guarantee that he will do so. 

Another option available to Levkin and others, in theory, is being granted Ukrainian citizenship by a presidential decree. The most prominent example, Belarusian-Russian neo-Nazi Sergei Korotkikh, was controversially given Ukrainian citizenship by then-president Petro Poroshenko in December 2014. 

More recently, however, a friend of Levkin and other Russian far-right figures in Ukraine was granted the gift of Ukrainian citizenship from Zelenskyy: Nikita Makeev.

Makeev, as Bellingcat wrote in an investigation last year, is a former Azov fighter and Russian citizen who came to Ukraine in 2014; he has been trying to obtain Ukrainian citizenship for years. Makeev has also reportedly been a close associate of National Corps Deputy Head Nazarii Kravchenko, having been seen with him at a number of rallies and events. 

Makeev is also close to Levkin, and is part of the “Russian Center,” an organization of Russian far-right ‘exiles’ in Ukraine whose leadership and activities seem to overlap with Wotanjugend. 

A photo (left to right) of Nikita Makeev, Alexei Levkin and Ivan Mikheev holding the flag of the “Russian Center,” an organization of Russian far-right ‘exiles’ based in Ukraine

Russian Center has also made efforts to cooperate and form relationships with international far-right groups. A conference in Ukraine in April 2019 featured representatives from far-right, neo-Nazi movements in Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Serbia; they discussed, among other topics, the need to create cross-border “groups of fighters who want to support their European comrades.” Also there was Ukrainian neo-Nazi group Karpatska Sich, who in August 2019 urged its members to buy the Ukrainian-language translation of the Christchurch shooter’s manifesto. Moreover, In August 2019 a representative from Russian Center attended a far-right conference in the Czech Republic, meeting with representatives of far-right, neo-Nazi groups from the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland. 

On July 18, 2019, Zelenskyy signed a decree granting Ukrainian citizenship to “nine…foreigners who defended our state,” one of whom was Makeev.

Levkin (centre, with beard) in an undated photo.  Over Levkin’s left shoulder is Nikita Makeev, a Russian Azov veteran granted Ukrainian citizenship by President Volodymyr Zelenskyy in July 2019. The third man from the left, with his hand on Makeev’s shoulder, is Ukrainian now-former MP Oleh Petrenko.

A week later, with his Ukrainian citizenship in proverbial tow, Makeev jumped back in the headlines. Makeev was part of a group of individuals who attacked the motorcade of former president Petro Poroshenko. While others in the group allegedly pepper-sprayed and kicked Poroshenko’s bodyguards, Makeev jumped onto the hood of the former president’s car. He later explained his actions by claiming he wanted to give Poroshenko a bulletproof vest which had been pierced by bullets, and thus “avenge [Poroshenko] for five years of humiliation.” Makeev’s act is reportedly under investigation as “hooliganism” by Ukrainian law enforcement. 

Levkin has made it clear that he would like to become a Ukrainian citizen, and his bid has received public support from the Azov movement . He was in attendance at Azov’s June 2019 protest in front of the Presidential Administration of Ukraine demanding changes in the citizenship law, and has given interviews in the past on the need to grant Ukrainian citizenship to foreign fighters like him. 

When asked in a January 2019 interview if M8l8th concerts might eventually take place outside of Ukraine — in other words, if he was able to receive Ukrainian citizenship and thus travel visa-free to the European Union — Levkin struck a confident tone. 

“I think that in time [concerts outside of Ukraine] will happen,” said Levkin. “We all currently await the passage of the law granting citizenship to foreign volunteers. It all depends on that.”

But Levkin made it clear that, in the meantime, he is happy to use Kyiv as a meeting point for far-right extremists from Europe and beyond. 

“If we can’t make it there, they can easily come here and enjoy glorious Kyiv,” said Levkin, “a gathering point for the right of all sorts.”

Bellingcat Anti-Equality Monitoring

Ongoing monitoring and investigative effort into anti-equality (anti-LGBT, choice, feminist, etc.) and far-right movements in Ukraine, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan. This project is collaboratively operated by Oleksiy Kuzmenko and Michael Colborne (Ukraine), Narine Khachatryan (Armenia), and Aiganysh Aidarbekova (Kyrgyzstan). You can also follow us on Telegram at t.me/bellingcatmonitoring

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28 Comments

    • ProLibertas

      No one has to keep that in Mind because it is not true. Killing people is the consequence of ideology and not its core. The nazis are also no exception in their thinking in terms of social darwinism since every society ever evolved around this concept in one form or another. Some even to the extremes of racialy defined cast systems like india.

      Reply
      • Mr.Bushkin

        No.

        Killing, expelling and/or sterilizing minorities and ethnicities proclaimed inferior is the implementation of the formentioned ideology, which is despised in civlized countries.

        Reply
  1. mohamed

    eastern europe is very dangerous for foreigners , especially for non whites . i ve been attacked there by racists and they almost killed me , the cops didn t wanna help me and even tried to take money from me , they kept saying “why you came here,” “what you do here ?” “when do you leave?” , they really don t like colored people

    Reply
  2. Ellie

    Ukraine lost just under 7 million people during WWII, that’s military and civilian deaths combined. Russia lost just under 14 million people during WWII, also both military and civilian deaths. I guarantee you these punks have at least one grandparent who’s a WWII veteran, and they would beat them within an inch of their life for worshiping a tyrant who wanted all of the Slavs dead.

    Reply
    • Tim

      Ellie, so, please, go on, do tell us how Ukrainians should feel about Russians who glorify the red army and security services who murdered 4-6 million ukrainians during the artificial famines and political repressions from the 1920s to the 50s?

      You have an incredibly naive view of the situation in Ukraine. While I am in absolutely no possible way endorsing the generally repugnant views of the ‘neo nazis’, to even to begin to understand the mentality you need to have a much more nuanced understanding of the history. You talk about ‘worshipping a tyrant who wanted all of the slavs dead.’ The soviets, don’t forget, have always wanted to equally wipe the concept of ukraine off the map (language and cultural suppression, forcing anybody who wanted to get anywhere in life to take on a ‘russian’ identity, murder and invasion – all of these continue today under putin).

      it’s very easy to sit in some western european or north american country where your history is simply ‘we fought the bad nazis.’ In Ukraine, a very good case can be made that the soviets and then the russians were, well, at least equally bad.

      Reply
      • Antony

        You are lying. On the contrary, Soviets created the Ukraine. In Russian Empire Ukraine was just a province. Also, not only Ukrainians starved but Russian too.

        Reply
        • Oleg

          It was Soviet Russia which eliminated the sovereignty of Ukraine, starting an aggression against the non-Soviet Ukrainian People’s Republic at the end of 1917. So the Soviets did not create Ukraine – this is just one of the most delusional theses of Russian propaganda, and you repeat it. The “Soviets” liquidated Ukraine as a state – and then dragged occupied Ukraine into the USSR which was created by the occupying country – Russia (since 1918 – the RSFSR) in 1922. This role of Russia was embodied even in the anthem of the USSR – “Союз нерушимый республик свободных сплотила навеки Великая Русь – “the Union of indestructible free republics rallied forever the Great Russia” (that is, Russia)

          As for the famine – if there was a big famine in Russia in 1932-1933, then the Ukrainian villagers would not be forbidden to run there in search of bread by the Soviet authorities. Special orders of the Moscow authorities were adopted to trap Ukrainian villagers in the RSFSR and return them to Ukraine. There are the archival docs. In the regions of Ukraine where the action of the famine was held in 1932-1933, all 10 previous centuries have never experienced hunger with mortality. Natural hunger is impossible there for several reasons – and the summer of 1932 was not barren. And in Russia hunger with mortality before that was many times

          Reply
      • Scrat335

        Tim. Punch yourself in the face. Some of us westerners know what the word Ukraine means. And who came up with it. We also know the history of the area, the wars, foreign interventions, when America attacked Russia/USSR. We know who the fascists are and we know why the USSR did what it did after WWII. They brough you decades of peace by crushing the warlords that tried to take power in the vacuum left after the Nazis were defeated. Were it not for that the Ukraine may have died and the people could be suffering to this day.

        Reply
  3. ProLibertas

    This is a rather good sign that Ukraine is a country more free then russia. And despite this supposedly large nazi presence the Ukraine elected a Jew for Prime Minister. So i don’t see where the problem is.

    Reply
    • Anonymous

      The problem is the communists and all kinds of “anti fascists”.
      If that esoteric Nazism was dangerous to Ukrainian people it would not exist today. I haven’t seen a single confirmation of some far-right organization in Ukraine doing something like killing non-white people. This is simply a fairy tale to scare some foreigners.

      And that “is very dangerous for foreigners , especially for non whites” is just hilarious since we have a lot of non whites. Most of them are tourists and students of course but still they live in Ukraine for years. Some of them know Ukrainian very well and drink beer with their Ukrainian friends in the pubs at night. This is something I see every day. And now you can see why this stupid “ukrainian nazi” hysteria annoys me.

      Reply
    • Mr.Bushkin

      In Germany, such individuals would be instantly jailed based on §86a StGB, 129a StGB, §130 StGB and etc pp.

      Some ideologies simply should not remain unobliterated.

      Reply
  4. John Burt Caylor

    Adolph Hitler could not decide to kill or embrace those nut cases from Ukraine. Nazi’s and their ideology has only one place in the Universe, in the ground Dead and buried.

    Reply
  5. Kimmo Haapea

    Can someone stop that inhuman and abhorrent (neo-)nazi propaganda please? Cheers to Bellingcat’s brave information fighters for these astonishing surprisingly interesting revelations 🙂

    Reply
      • Aric Toler

        …did you know that this article is about people in Ukraine? We have published ~15 or so articles about far-right extremists in Ukraine over the last year or so.

        Reply

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