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Are Historic Mosques In Xinjiang Being Destroyed?

April 5, 2019

By Nick Waters

Translations: Русский

Activists on Twitter have recently claimed that China has been destroying historic mosques across Xinjiang province, which is home to a large population of Uighurs, a primarily Muslim minority in China.

By using open sources and satellite imagery we can locate these mosques and check such claims. We can also potentially narrow down when the alleged destruction took place.

The Keriya Aitika Mosque

The first mosque that came to our attention was the Keriya Aitika Mosque, located here. We already know the exact location as the activist who posted about this mosque helpfully included the coordinates in his images. The two images that the activist posted from Google Earth clearly demonstrate that the building depicted has been razed.

Screenshot of Tweet. Note the co-ordinates in the images (source)

A Google image search using the terms “Keriya Mosque, China” makes clear that the location depicted is the northern gatehouse for a mosque. The main prayer hall appears to be a large rectangular building immediately to the south, documented in this Flickr album. There is a smaller building between the large building and the gatehouse, which Google Earth indicates was built after March 2014.

Mosque Complex (Image courtesy of Google Earth/Digital Globe)

Although the original poster has already used Google Earth historical imagery to show that the gatehouse has certainly been destroyed, we can use Planet Labs imagery to narrow down exactly when this took place.

Planet Labs imagery is usually of much lower resolution than Google Earth, typically three meters per pixel rather than 50 cm or 30 cm per pixel, however the imagery is taken more regularly. Below is a comparison between this location on the 19th (left) and 20th (right) of March 2018, using Planet Labs imagery. We can see that the gatehouse seems to disappear.

It is therefore apparent that there has been a change between March 19 and 20, focused on the gatehouse.  In the slider below comparing the two dates, we can see that the building immediately to the south of the gatehouse has also been completely removed, although the larger rectangular building to the south, which we believe to be the prayer hall, appears to be intact.

The Kargilik Mosque

A second user on the original thread on this subject asked about the Kargilik Mosque and whether it had been razed or not.

Finding the exact location of this mosque is a little harder, but not by much. Simply by typing “Kargilik Mosque” into Google we find that the first result was a place in the collaborative mapping service Wikimapia. By comparing satellite imagery of this location with other images we found of this mosque, we can confirm that this location is correct.

Turquoise V indicates the likely viewpoint of this photo. Left, satellite imagery, courtesy of Google & Digital Globe. Right, image of the Kargilik Mosque (source)

Looking at publicly available imagery on Google Earth we see no obvious changes to this mosque. This is because, at the time of writing, the most recent available imagery on Google Earth was from September 1, 2018, when the mosque was still standing. However, using Planet Labs imagery we can see that there was significant change at this location in late 2018.

Fade comparison between November 29 and December 21, 2018

Comparison of the mosque site in Kargilik. Green indicates where a building has been removed and red shows where the shadow of the gatehouse should fall. (Images courtesy of Planet Labs)

Using the Planet Labs imagery we can can see that something big has happened, but it’s not possible to be sure of the exact extent of this change as Google Earth has no up-to-date imagery. However, recent high quality imagery can be leased from TerraServer, which shows the extent of the change in much higher detail. As we can see from the comparison below, a large portion of the mosque complex has been removed, including the impressive gatehouse.

Comparison of the Kargilik Mosque site (Left image courtesy of Google Earth/Digital Globe Right image courtesy of TerraServer/Digital Globe)

Conclusion

By using a variety of tools, including subscription services, open sources and collaborative mapping applications, we can identify that these two mosques have undergone significant structural changes over the course of 2018. This changes translate into the loss of beautiful and historic buildings, such as the gatehouse at Keriya Mosque and a large portion of the Kargilik Mosque

It is already clear that there is systematic repression and imprisonment of the Muslim Uighur minority in Xinjiang, and the destruction of cultural and religiously significant Islamic buildings in this province may be a further part of this ongoing repression. Commercial mapping and satellite imagery services will be important tools in tracking such events and identifying if the destruction of such buildings is systemic or not, especially in a region where access can be difficult.

Nick Waters

Nick is an ex-British Army officer and open source analyst. He has a special interest in the conflicts in Syria, as well as social media, civil society, intelligence and security. Contact via Twitter: @N_Waters89

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31 Comments

  1. Rezaul Karim

    So evil, monstrous, appalling, & reprehensible. Chinese Govt. will pay for it.

    Reply
  2. Thus is terible

    Question: There are millions of people living in this area why not ask them what happened? Or ask them to take a picture?

    Reply
    • Sure

      Not possible to post anything for there people of this region add the internet is highly policed and will lead them to be the next in line to the reeducation camps.

      Reply
  3. azaf

    Google Earth already released latest satellite image dated 11 January 1019 of the mosque which clearly shown the mosque had been DEMOLISHED!

    Reply
  4. 1

    China practices freedom of religion and firmly opposes and combats religious extremist thought.There are more than 20 million Muslims and more than 35,000 mosques in China. The vast majority of believers can freely engage in religious activities according to the law,

    Reply
  5. PHD

    NO FOREIGN RELIGION
    it’s a based consensus of chinese people
    u foreigners would see religion building growing only
    anti-nohalal food and religionization is really makes Chinese people angry now , the generatin after 90s especially 。
    yes
    i stand with CCP gov
    i’m from mainland China

    Reply
  6. PW

    I just see some blurry photos that supposed to be the mosques location. I am not convinced what shown correlates to what the article claims.

    Reply
    • Gadfly

      Look harder. And try looking in numerous other sources who also report this. When multiple sources report the same thing, you can be sure there is a case to answer.

      Reply
  7. Walnut

    One thing I would like to point out is, the structures that are showed demolished in this article are not historic (at least most of them are not). They are gatehouse that were built in 1980s to 1990s.
    For Kargilik Mosque, as this article mentioned the larger rectangular building appears to be intact. That building is the prayer hall with 500 years history. The demolished gatehouse was built in 1997-1998. You can check this link, it provides picture of the historic part of the mosque and also information about the history of buildings.
    https://medium.com/@shawnwzhang/clarification-of-keriya-etika-mosques-current-situations-9678a6975a51

    For Kargilik Mosque in Yecheng. It is difficult to look for information about this one. As there are several mosque with same name in the area and this one is not the most famous one. But I still found some traveling journals that were wrote in 2000s showed pictures of the buildings.
    Again the huge gatehouse is not historic, the mosque enlarged its area in 1953 to cover that land. And the gatehouse was built in 1987. I am not sure about the history of the structures in the east. But it could be the old gatehouse built in 1883. At the same time the buildings in the west seems still intact, with some tree in the yard. That is the most historic part of the mosque, which again very likely to be the prayer hall.
    By the way, I just checked the latest Google Earth image of the mosque. I saw a smaller but new gatehouse-like structure was built between January and April 2019 at the position of the previous huge gatehouse.

    So why the structures that were built in 80s and 90s were demolished? I did find some pieces of history about Kargilik Mosque. Seems the worship leader, Abdul Hakim Makhsum, during the building of the gatehouse was a member of the Turkistan Islamic Party (which is a terrorist organization, http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Turkistan_Islamic_Party). Yet, I didn’t find other information support this idea. But it is a possible reason.

    Reply

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