the home of online investigations

You can support the work of Bellingcat by donating through the following link:

An Open Source Analysis of the Fallujah “Convoy Massacre”(s)

July 6, 2016

By Christiaan Triebert

Iraqi MoD screenshot for primary picture

From June 28 to June 29, aircraft of both the international Coalition (CJTF-OIR) and the Republic of Iraq targeted two large convoys of alleged Islamic State (IS) vehicles as they fled the outskirts of Fallujah in central Iraq. Concerns have been raised that the convoys were carrying not only IS militants, but also their family members that may have been killed in the attacks.

This analysis aims to provide a clearer overview of the events of June 29 and June 30, 2016 by cross-referencing all open source information available. This includes geolocations of footage released by both the international Coalition and the Iraqi Ministry of Defence (MoD), official statements, and media reports, especially a Washington Post (WaPo) article by Mustafa Salim and Thomas Gibbons-Neff (link) and Arnaud Delalande’s write-up in War Is Boring for which he interviewed Iraqi military pilots (link).

The situation in and around Fallujah

For over two and-a-half years, Fallujah was under the control of the so-called Islamic State. In the last days of June 2016, a combination of Iraqi forces managed to recapture the city following a month-long offensive. Despite that the city is now largely cleared from IS fighters, Iraqi forces still clash with some of them in the outskirts of the city.

Eissa al-Issawi, the mayor of Fallujah, said that he had obtained information that IS fighters would try to escape these outskirts and notified the Iraqi military, according to the WaPo-article. The first combination of airstrikes followed soon in an area south of Fallujah, where IS fighters allegedly had gathered to leave the city.

It is important to note that this was the first air attack on a convoy. From all open source information available, it is clear that there were at least two convoys: one north of the Euphrates River and one south of it. Therefore, this overview is structured along the lines of the two identified convoys: the northern convoy and the southern convoy.

bellingcat map

The southern convoy

In the night of June 28, between 9:00 PM and 10:00 PM, Iraq’s military intelligence detected “the movement of numerous vehicles from Fallujah in a southwesterly direction along the road to Amiriyat Fallujah”, Delalande writes. Not much later Iraqi army helicopters continued to track the vehicles when “intelligence reports indicated that [IS] militants were fleeing Fallujah — seemingly explaining the huge convoy.”

The size of the convoy was according to Iraqi official sources around 11 kilometres long. That the convoy was indeed massive, can be seen in the following video that was tweeted by the official English-language account of the Popular Mobilisation Units (PMU), an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organisation composed of around 40 (mainly Shia) militias.

Interestingly, the video reveals much information as it shows the indicators for the aircraft on the left (ACFT; 33°16’18″N/43°37’51″E) and indicators for the target on the right (TGT; 55NM at 125° southeast). That means the helicopter was flying here, southwest of Fallujah, when it was filming the convoy a bit further southeast of the helicopter’s position.

PMU screenshot M

The Iraqis subsequently informed their American colleagues, but CJTF-OIR “denied permission for its warplanes to attack the area in question, as the vehicles in question could be carrying civilians.” As a result, Delalande writes, Iraqi pilots took the initiative themselves and gained permission to attack from their superiors in Najaf a few hours later, with the “first two helicopters took off at 1:30 in the morning on June 29.”

Delalande’s information of Iraqi military pilots can be cross-referenced with official Iraqi MoD publications related to the attacks on its Facebook page and YouTube channel, which both state that the attacks started “exactly at 1:20 AM” (Arabic: “وتحديداً الساعة الواحدة وعشرين دقيقة”).

Besides, parts of the Iraqi MoD video compilation can be geolocated in the Hasai area (Wikimapia link) — a region southwest of Fallujah and on the road to Amiriyat Fallujah.

The 13 photos uploaded to the Iraqi MoD’s official Facebook page of the alleged aftermath on “over 426” IS vehicles in “the desert west of Amiriyat Fallujah” can also be geolocated to the Hasai area, in a village named Fuḩaylāt (Arabic: الفحيلات).

In addition to these geolocations in the Hasai area, the WaPo’s account also mentions the area, though spells it as “Hussay” and claims it is “northwest of Fallujah” from which vehicles fled towards the Syrian border. Though the name is correct (the Arabic name ‘الحصي’ can be transcribed to the Latin script in several ways), there is no “Hussay” north of Fallujah. Therefore, it appears that WaPo in fact refers to the same area as Delalande and the Iraqi MoD.

The attacks “lasted hours”, according to the Iraqi pilots interviewed by Delalande, and ”destroyed more than half the convoy, killing dozens of militants.” In the Iraqi MoD video, which includes footage from the aftermath from the ground, shows indeed a few bodies but even more clothes.

Several of the photos that appeared on social media, “clearly show that the convoy consisted of a mixture of civilian and military vehicles”, according to Delalande. Important to note is that the convoy also attacked the Iraqi aircraft, as the first 55 seconds of the Iraqi MoD video show. That footage has not been geolocated so far, but is likely to be from southwest Fallujah.

One the Iraqi MoD compilation video mentioned earlier, a large number of M79 Osa anti-tank unguided rockets is visible in the back of a small truck, as well as other weapons in another truck.

weapons screenshot

Other vehicles allegedly used for military purposes were also destroyed, such as “several bulldozers and a large number of so-called technicals” but other than that there is no footage of military vehicles. There is a possibility, Delalande rightly notes, that some of the vehicles carried the families of IS fighters — “which is apparently why the [US] initially refused to take part in the operation.”

But the convoy south of Fallujah was not the only convoy to be attacked on June 29, as geolocations of the videos and photos reveal, as well as the Delalande’s interview with Iraqi military pilots.

The northern convoy

A second round of airstrikes hit a different convoy of “around 30 vehicles [driving] in a northwesterly direction” (Delalande) near “Albu Bali neighbo[u]rhood” (WaPo), which is northwest of Fallujah.

WaPo cites a leader of local Sunni tribal fighters, Sheikh Faisal al-Issawi, who claimed they were contacted via walkie-talkie as an IS convoy neared their lines. The IS fighters said they did not come here to fight but wanted to pass through towards the desert. Al-Issawi attacked the convoy anyway, he says.

The location mentioned can be successfully cross-referenced with a part of the video released by the Iraqi MoD, thanks to a geolocation from Twitter user @obretix. From 0:55 to 1:23, the video shows a road in the desert northwest of Fallujah, north of the “Albu Bali” area (exact location on Wikimapia).

The Coalition also released a video on their official YouTube channel, saying it shows airstrikes on “[IS] fighters fleeing in a convoy near Habbaniyah, Iraq”. Habbaniyah is a town between Albu Bali and Fallujah. The location shown in the video was geolocated by Twitter user @Luxfero_99, just a few meters from the area geolocated above in the Iraqi MoD video.

A statement of the MoD of the United Kingdom (UK) can also be cross-referenced with the events. On June 29 a Eurofighter Typhoon and two MQ-9 Reapers struck IS “terrorist[s] retreating from Fallujah”:

A Typhoon struck two vehicles and a large group of extremists with Paveway IV bombs west of Fallujah and two Reapers destroyed a further four vehicles and a group of fighters, using Hellfire missiles and a GBU-12 guided bomb. One Reaper observed the Daesh vehicles refusing to stop and pick up fellow armed extremists trying to escape on foot.

Two days after the attack, on July 1, the Iraqi MoD published a video showing the aftermath of the airstrikes from a ground perspective. The video shows the same section of the convoy as shown in the Iraqi MoD video from the air, as @obretix noted, and is thus a destroyed part of the northern convoy.

Both videos of this location do not show any military vehicles or small trucks with mounted guns. However, what appears to be the remains of a AKS short assault rifle (2), “given the folding stock”, can be spotted next to a teapot and a frying pan (1) in the Iraqi MoD video from the ground.

teapot

A part of the northern convoy was clearly destroyed, but what happened to the part of the convoy that was not destroyed and got away, is fuzzy.

Delalande writes that reports came in of IS militants killing civilians east of Ramadi. On June 30, the Iraqi army deployed several Bell 407 scout helicopters and Mil Mi-28 gunships to ease the situation. The Iraqi aircraft came under fire, and subsequently the US Air Force ordered all helicopters to vacate the area, making place for CJTF-OIR fighter-bombers.

In the hours that followed, the “Iraqi army aviation flew dozens of medical evacuation sorties […] evacuating injured civilians from the vicinity of the coalition’s air ra[i]ds, including many children.” Later that day, CJTF-OIR spokesperson Col. Christopher Garver stated that the Coalition had struck “two major Islamic State convoys fleeing Fallujah over the last two days.”

Unlike the other combination of airstrikes, this round on the northern convoy was reported by civilians on the ground. On Facebook, the page ‘iraqi revolution’ posted that “the martyrdom and wounding of dozens of displaced families from Tarrah [Arabic: الطراح] to Ramadi Island [Arabic: جزيرة الرمادي], after the government and international aircraft targeted their vehicles.”

Airwars, a transparency project that tracks and archives the international air war against IS and other groups in both Iraq and Syria, puts the number of reported civilian casualties on 12 or more for the June 30 strikes near Ramadi, but labels the quality of reporting as “contested”. Airwars cross-referenced this event with an official report of the UK MoD:

With Daesh forces continuing to flee in defeat from their former stronghold of Fallujah, on Thursday 30 June Royal Air Force Tornado GR4s patrolled over the desert of Anbar province and located a group of terrorist vehicles a number of miles to the south-west of Ramadi. Attacks with four Brimstone missiles and a Paveway IV guided bomb successfully accounted for five trucks.

What the official reports of the Coalition do not mention is the number of fighters killed, though there are reports that there may be civilian casualties.

Alleged civilian casualties

The Iraqi MoD claims “hundreds” of IS fighters had been killed, while media reports suggest a lower number of around 250. It is hard to give an estimate of killed persons based on open source information, especially because all videos and photos show a minimal number of bodies.

Concerns have been raised about who have been killed: was it just IS fighters or were civilians also part of the convoy? Coalition spokesperson Garver said that this was indeed the reason why their aircraft had avoided a part of the convoy as they believed it could carry civilians.

In the Iraqi MoD video at least two men can be seen carrying what appear to be Kalashnikov assault rifles, though the locations have not been verified to either the southern or the northern convoy so far.

weapons

The spokesperson of the Iraqi MoD claimed no women had been killed in the airstrikes, though their own video showed the body of a dead child near the location of the northern convoy.

dead child

The director of Airwars, Chris Woods, tells Bellingcat that incidents like these, where enemy forces flee en masse, are rare. But when such events occur, the claims that civilians were present “makes sense”. Woods says they might have been ordinary citizens trying to escape Fallujah, but thinks it is more likely that they were family members of IS militants. But, as Woods stresses, this does not change their status as non-combatants.

One of the unclarities of the events are the civilian deaths reported on June 30. It is unclear whether they are due to IS, the Coalition, or Iraq. Perhaps we will never know. “We still don’t  know how many civilians died during the Highway of Death in Kuwait. Similarly, we may never know how many civilians died in the recent events, especially if the non-combatants were [IS] family members. They are non-combatants under international law, but whether they have been granted that status in reality is another question.”

Number of vehicles destroyed

The number of vehicles destroyed varies significantly between the official statements of the authorities. This is a table with the different numbers that have been mentioned.

table

Humanitarian convoy

Besides the southern and the northern convoy struck by airstrikes, there was another convoy: a humanitarian one of an aid agency named Preemptive Love. At least two trucks were transporting “100,000 pounds of food for those who fled Fallujah” and were now stranded in camps around the city on the evening of June 28, an article on the organisation’s website reads.

But as the night fell, two trucks got stuck in “a massive rut”. The team split, one heading back to Baghdad and the other staying with the trucks. A little later, the team that stayed heard gunfire and “saw flashes of rocket fire in the distance”. Being in contact with the other part of the team that reached an Iraqi army checkpoint near Amiriyat Fallujah, they learned IS had “launched a counterattack” with vehicles moving in their direction:

The team guarding the trucks climbed down into a nearby ditch and pulled sand over themselves as ISIS vehicles began passing on the road. Our team leader counted about 80 vehicles with fighters bearing small arms.

convoy stuck

Meanwhile, the other part of the team was still near the Iraqi army checkpoint but could not move further due to a lock-down as the fighting between Iraqi forces and IS continued. Just after dawn, they claim an airstrike from a Coalition aircraft hit very close to their position:

“We could hear the missiles coming on top of our heads,” said one of our team members. “After the first airstrike, we started running, trying to reach the checkpoint. But the soldiers aimed their guns at us and told us to stay back.”

Another round of airstrikes followed. Back at the aid organisations’ office they tweeted the last known coordinates of their team to the American embassy in Baghdad and US Central Command, while a reporter called her military contacts to alert the US.

That worked, according to Matthew Willingham, the organisation’s senior field editor: the Coalition “stopped short of acknowledging strikes at the exact coordinates we gave gave them.”

US forces have admitted they were conducting airstrikes on IS convoys in the area, according to Willingham. This is interesting as this is the southern convoy, of which the Coalition did not release any footage. The coordinates tweeted by Preemptive Love are a few kilometres southeast (Wikimapia) of other known locations of the southern convoy.

aid convoy

Since the attacks, access between Baghdad and the Iraqi province of Anbar has been even more restrictive than it already was, WaPo writes. As a result, humanitarian agencies are unable to deliver humanitarian supplies for “the tens of thousands” that have fled Fallujah and “are now stranded in desert camps”.

Analysis of open source information

Given all the open source information available concerning the incidents, several issues arise.

First of all is the confusion surrounding the events, which is not only indicated by the alleged airstrikes on the humanitarian organisations, but also by a tweet of the Coalition’s spokesperson. He tweeted several times about multiple convoys at multiple locations. With the above information, it seems highly likely that these convoys were probably the same: “east of Ramadi” is “near Habbaniyah”, while the spokesperson even tweets that is “southwest of Fallujah” (which it is not). To clear things up, here is an overview of the geolocated airstrikes on convoys around Fallujah.

As with regards to the northern convoy, the CJTF-OIR video sheem to show the convoy as being stationary, while the vehicles in the Iraqi MoD video were clearly driving. What is further noteworthy that in all videos not many bodies can be seen. Open source information cannot make this issue clearer, unfortunately.

What else is remarkable is that both convoys managed to leave from Fallujah, while there were only two humanitarian corridors opened, one north and one south, where males were detained for processing. The humanitarian corridors are shown in blue on the Institute for the Study of War map below (note: the map shows the situation as of June 17, IS territorial control was heavily decreased by June 28).

isw map

How, then, did the convoys leave the city on lockdown? This is especially significant for the southern convoy, which, if it really came out of Fallujah city, must have crossed the Euphrates River. The most recent available commercial satellite imagery via TerraServer shows that only two bridges leading out of Fallujah were still intact – all other bridges in the vicinity of Fallujah were destroyed as of June 5, 2016.

According to Fallujah’s mayor al-Issawi, IS fighters that had fled Fallujah gathered in Hassai. If this is indeed the case, it means that the convoy would not have had to cross the Euphrates with vehicles. But even if that would be the case, such a massive convoy would not have attempted to flee without assurances that the army would not fight them, al-Issawi is cited as saying in WaPo: “They wouldn’t take such a risk unless they had a deal with some side […] Why would they drive more than 500 cars in an exposed agricultural area?”

In the past, Iraqi forces have left open escape routes for IS militants to escape the urban areas and go into the desert, according to WaPo. But the Iraqi MoD’s spokesperson Rasoul dismissed that claim as “nonsense”.

Conclusion

A survey of the open source information available shows us that at least two convoys were attacked by aircraft of both Iraq and the Coalition.

One convoy was travelling from Fallujah in southwesterly direction when it was struck several times by Iraqi aircraft in the early morning of June 29. In the same area, a humanitarian convoy claims to have been targeted by Coalition aircraft as well. The Coalition has made statements both saying they did strike in that area as well as statements that said they did not.

A second convoy was travelling from Fallujah in northwesterly direction when it was struck north of the Albu Bali area by both Iraqi and Coalition aircraft later that day on June 29. A part of the convoy appears to have been struck again a day later, closer to Ramadi. From there, Iraqi army aviation airlifted wounded civilians, though it is unclear who harmed them.

However, there are limitations to this open source approach, and there are still unanswered questions. How did the convoys managed to escape a city on lockdown? Who harmed the civilians near Ramadi that were airlifted by the Iraqi military’s aviation? Does this explain the lack of bodies shown on the videos? Why did the Iraqis attack the southern convoy despite a warning about civilians of the Coalition? Why was a humanitarian convoy allegedly targeted in the same area by Coalition aircraft nonetheless?

The author would like to express thank to the following Twitter users: @obretix in specific for his contributions to this article, as well as @Luxfero_99, @green_lemonnn, @Mr_Ghostly, and @ain92ru for the information they shared. The map is partly based on Liveuamap and ISW.

Updates:

  • July 7, 2016, 21:13 GMT: Included the tweet with the coordinates of the Preemptive Love staff allegedly under attack by Coalition aircraft.
Christiaan Triebert

Christiaan Triebert has investigated for Bellingcat since 2015 and runs several of Bellingcat's workshops for journalists and researchers across the world. Contact via email (christiaantriebert@bellingcat.com) or Twitter (@trbrtc).

Join the Bellingcat Mailing List:

Enter your email address to receive a weekly digest of Bellingcat posts, links to open source research articles, and more.

81 Comments

  1. boggled

    Another concept not explored or discussed was the issue of human shields and did Da’esh shoot them in the backs when they tried to flee and they were not killed by Iraqi/Coalition forces.
    War is Hell and we know Coalition/Iraqis forces are trying to play by some rules due to being held accountable (some more then others) and Da’esh has its own code of ethics (which is very narrow) and the likelihood of prosecution outside of individual nations (Iraq) is very slim.
    Da’esh has everything to gain, and no reason to follow International Laws.
    So their morals are slim to none.

    Are the families hostages?
    Do they have Stockholm syndrome?
    Do most have an intention to create, harbor, or turn into future violent combatants?
    Is there negotiation with them in order to give them a safe haven if they comply with some international/Islamic order?

    Unfortunately, I see only one of those questions having a yes answer.
    The hostages/human shields answer is a possibility, but I do not know.
    I have my doubts.

    Japan’s bombings were a way to end a war weary world with the shortest time and the least amount of casualties with some kind of shock value that was the ONLY thing Japan’s emperor and supporting population would react to.

    Hopefully it does not come to that stage, but shock and awe is sometimes the only thing few dictators respond to.

    Shock and awe has been used by many governments and sometimes I think for good reason, sometimes not.
    You have had the various purges/genocides waged by Stalin and the red terror.
    You had America’s attacks on Japan – I am not so sure that America had known about generations down the road and how adversely they would have been affected.
    You had the 2 months attacks on Grozny that leveled it and killed 60k.
    etc

    As we advance in wars tactics and weapons, many concentrate on command and control nodes and attempt to prevent as many civilian deaths as possible.
    While the enemy does not concern itself with that.

    USA and world is war weary against Da’esh and terrorists
    Problem is they keep coming and will continue for future generations.

    The various groups have been fighting wars ever since its founding, both from within (Salafism Sharia Sunni Shia and etc.) as well as wars waged against an outside world that tries to help bring them under some sort of higher morals and peace.

    Some things boil down to what each group (nation) will find acceptable to live with.
    UN is a method for peace and negotiation and has worked for the most part.
    Some people like Saddam, Kim, Assad, etc said FU to UN.
    They pay the price for that and their oppression. graft. dictatorship instead of attempting to justify and explain it satisfactorily .
    Currently democracy is what the UN is based on and the many attempt to uphold that.

    Should shock and awe be used against Daesh, Taliban, ALQ, Boko Haram, Muslim Brotherhood?
    Or will that just bring others into the fight that were on the fulcrum of the teeter-totter?
    Or is the will to only pray that eventually these groups will conform?
    Not a lot of simple answers.

    The belliegerant ideologies react a few ways
    – go back into their holes and wait a couple generations of breeding
    -eventually change like Japan and Germany
    -or gain outside help
    — like Assad (not totally ideology based but more in support of graft and autocracy) with Russia’s and Iran’s help
    — or FSA (mostly reaction to corruption and autocracy, some groups do want an Sharia run nation) with Coalitions forces
    — or Da’esh (most about ideology and creating a new autocratic, corrupt, Islam run nation) with their support
    — or the Kurds with their support from countries that feel part of their cause is just.

    Syria is a strange war because you have many fronts they are fighting along and no easy solutions.

    Am I promoting ‘kill them all and let God sort them out’ as a good policy?
    Hello?!?! no I am not.
    I believe that makes us no better than terrorists.
    BUT in order to change an ideology, that may be the only thing that works to stop the wars and hatred that is a foundation of that ideology.
    Nothing else has worked as Islam has been in fighting for centuries against itself.

    One group of the ideology wants to get a long with and associate with the world as we know it, and another wants to bring about the apocalypse.

    How do you defeat a group that wants apocalypse or one world under Islam?

    I am open to suggestions, but that is basically what the terrorism fight is about – Islam’s self identity crisis and what each group sees its goal as preventing or promoting.
    I want to see the peaceful TRUE Islam win.
    The one that wants to get along with the rest of the world.
    What do the majority of Islam’s Imams and leaders want?

    Or do we continue fighting terrorism and playing wack a mole for another 1400 years?
    No, I do not believe Da’esh represents true Islam.
    But they and their supporters do believe they do.
    Do they deserve shock and awe?
    World leaders debate this continually.

    Were these convoys full of supporters? Hostages (human shields)? Split 50-50 or some other way?
    Does the Da’esh own supporter’s belief in their way of Islam make them all combatants?
    To them, your duty is to fight as subversive agent, financial supporter as well as a violent one.
    They all have an agenda and each believes they are combatants in their own way.
    How many of the ‘non-combatants’ were cheering as the Jordanian pilot was burned alive and others executed?
    Doesn’t that make them all combatants not just those holding AK-47s.

    Various cures are getting more and more targeted, and we can only hope that that prevents a lot of the body being killed off.
    But sometimes that is the only solution to save the ‘healthy’ part of the body.
    Shock and awe battles the cancer.
    Wack a mole only battles the symptoms.
    Wack a mole may work, or may not, eventually because you get a a few of the important people in the chain and the rest dies off.
    Many times it comes back with ‘gentle’ cures.

    The world is finding out how bad the cancer is.
    What is the most effective treatment?
    And most acceptable treatment?
    The quickest?
    They are not always the same
    Most times the acceptable treatment of the loud vocal few activist does nothing at all to reduce the disease.
    They think the most acceptable is like eating Oreo’s to cure lung cancer.

    World Leaders, based on info they collected, believed nukes on Japan was the most effective treatment.
    And it was.
    Others believed their intelligence community (there was not just one nation collecting info) on Iraq and made a decision.
    Intelligence community was NOT correct of the scope – Yes, there were WMDs, uranium and many documents found – but were correct about the intention.

    Was it right or wrong to go because solely WMD beliefs.
    Nope, but there was a lot of other reasons besides WMD.

    What if they waited one more year before they had 1000% proof of WMD production and by failing to act 1 year prior because of needing 1000% proof, that NYC (or Paris or London or etc) was hit with 10 suitcase bombs?

    Ask yourself (those who think Iraqi war was unjustified) – What would you be saying today if suitcase bombs happened and world governments failed to act?
    Ask yourself – if your child was a victim of this clear intent which Saddam had, and your government could have done something about it, would you be angry they did not?
    It is clear Saddam had that intent and suicide bombers, just not the full ability.
    Yet.

    Yes, UN and others have laws of war we of the world should uphold to.
    The criminals of the world have none.
    And yes, there are grey areas and lines we should never cross.
    Iraq war was and is about much more then just WMD.

    Rant over

    Fare thee well

    Reply
    • john

      What if ???? What if Saddam sold his soul to the lizzard people in return for some sort of death ray????
      Saddam had no WMD or in development

      Reply
    • John Zenwirt

      boggled: “Nothing else has worked as Islam has been in fighting for centuries against itself.”

      Well, looking @ the history, Moslems have been the most dangerous invaders of…us, Western Europe. One could start with the Arab invasion/capture/hold of Spain. then the Moslems came over the Pyrenees to attack our centre. Even the Christian Knights knew, that their backs were to the wall. Us Western Europeans met them head-on, in OUR way; @ The Battle of Tours, 732. By the Grace of our Great God, Charles Martel, and his Knights defeated this deadly Moslem threat.

      Then they held Europe’s Spain hostage, from before Tours, until the end of the Re-Conquista , early 1490’s.

      Then they attacked through the Balkans to battle at the Gates to Vienna, 1638, I think They could then keep the Balkans as theirs, keeping them backwards and poor..

      Reply
  2. Mad Dog

    Hope you weren’t holding your breath when you were writing that Boggled! Some very good points!

    Reply
  3. John Zenwirt

    stranger – June 21st:

    “Unless you asked Aric to give you an authentic Russian word to pretend Russian”

    Stranger, you really believe that…? Secret communications between B/C & posters…?

    Please, you need to tone down the conspiracy theories somewhat.

    That said, I have always thought that your oft-timely posts are a necessary input. Who would want this, or any Forum, all shouting “Agreement”…?

    Reply
  4. John Zenwirt

    Why did the ISIS do a 100 vehicle convoy? I thought they’d long since stopped that, for fear of air-strikes. And, yet a second convoy; that’s a suicide….

    Why would anyone be surprised; they are under constant drone-watching…

    Yet, I think they did it, b/c local Iraqi Army Commanders said, “You’re safe (from us) to do this huge convoy”…

    Reply
    • Zachary Layne

      Or the local Iraqi commanders said “thanks for all this money. You may pass.”

      Reply
  5. Perry de Havilland

    “but also their family members that may have been killed in the attacks.”

    It is unclear to me why this would be important or is even particularly interesting. If the Daesh combatants (clearly legitimate targets) put their families at risk… so what?

    Reply
  6. John Zenwirt

    Why’s Obama Covering for Russian War Crimes in Syria?

    ISTANBUL, Turkey — “As evidence mounts that Russia is deliberately targeting civilians in Syria with cluster bombs and other anti-personnel weapons, what has long been a nagging question about Washington’s policy has now taken on real urgency: Why is there no comment from the U.S. government is to confirm or refute the allegations of war crimes?”

    “A Human Rights Watch report out Thursday documents how Russian aircraft dropped cluster bombs on an informal fuel market outside Termanin, a village in Idlib province, on July 11, killing 10 and wounding more than 30 people. The victims were all civilians and included two who were first responders.”

    http://tinyurl.com/glytb6v (DailyBeast)

    Reply
  7. Bernard

    Aumento Da Glande (Plastia Da Glande)
    Apenas 5% dos homens brasileiros possuem bimba pequeno, 90% possuem de 12 a
    16 centímetros, com média 14,1 cm dentro de ereção.
    Há mulheres que curtem um bastão grandão mesmo.
    Outras realmente preferem, sem hipocrisia, um menor.
    mundo não gira somente no torno da obsessão masculina em
    torno do falo(pinto). As vaginas também têm tamanhos diferentes e há
    nas mais variadas modelos, cores e cheiros.

    A conversa não deve parecer uma entrevista perguntando designação, idade
    bem como profissão. Saiba falar de assuntos leves e descontraídos, como música, cinema, lugares
    interessantes… Faça algumas brincadeiras bem como até mesmo a provoque de vez em quando.

    Como relata Okuma (1998), as doenças constituem um
    dos eventos causadores de estresse aos quais as pessoas se defrontam, dependendo
    do tipo e a fase de vida em que as seres humanos se encontram.
    Os idosos enfrentam uma quantidade menor de grandes eventos
    de vida, mas uma quantidade maior de pequenos eventos e perdas, como declínio da resistência física e mental,
    alongamento do mercado de trabalho, mudanças de papéis sociais e perda de familiares.

    Na extremidade do pênis encontra-se a glande – cabeça do pênis, onde
    podemos visualizar a abertura da uretra. Com a manipulação da pele que a envolve prepúcio acompanhado de estímulo erótico,
    ocorre à inundação dos corpos cavernosos e esponjosos, com sangue, tornando-se rijo, com aceitável
    aumento do tamanho (ereção).

    Na acessão a saúde enfermeiro deve ajudar cliente a
    adquirir uma sexualidade saudável que envolve a consideração dos fatores que influenciam satisfação sexual.

    enfermeiro precisa educar os clientes a respeito da saúde sexual,
    acrescentando as medidas para a contracepção e prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs).
    Os auto-exames regulares da mama e esfregaço de papanicolau são essenciais medidas de saúde sexual para as mulheres,
    que devem ser estimuladas, da mesma forma que os
    auto-exames testiculares para os homens (POTTER; PERRY, 2004, p.
    490).

    Foi explicado as mulheres objetivo da pesquisa, no entanto, as mesmas
    aceitaram participar da entrevista de maneira aleatória,
    entregue Termo de Consentimento Livre bem como Esclarecido e também assinado pelas mesmas.
    Foram selecionadas mulheres que estavam realizando tratamento e acompanhamento
    no uma unidade de informações e também que faziam preventivo de segmento.
    Os critérios de abrangimento foram mulheres com diagnóstico confirmado e também que realizavam tratamento
    e participavam das consultas de segmento na Coesão
    de Saúde, foram exclusas as mulheres com diagnósticos não confirmados,
    ou seja, com incerteza quanto a doença.

    Não se incomode com alongamentos e treinamentos com peso.

    Dizem que estas duas técnicas aumentam pênis e, em alguns casos, elas aumentam mesmo.

    Porém, quanto mais longo órgão ficar, mais
    fino ele ficará. Os dois os métodos fazem com que ele perca sua força enquanto estica.
    Você só deve usar um alongador peniano após fazer operação,
    quando necessário, para evitar acúmulo de tecido cicatrizado.

    Para seduzir uma mulher você também pode aproveitar
    silêncio, para ter um rudimentar contato físico. Com calma,
    se vai longe! Não precisa se desesperar, na hora com conquistar uma mulher, passar tranquilidade e equilíbrio, é a melhor postura que se pode adotar.

    3 Mantenha-se activo ao longo de a chona. A melhor maneira de obter uma conversa impertinente e íntimo com qualquer garota
    é por mensagens de texto a noite, ou chamando-a quando ela isto na cama.
    Comece por mensagens de artigo no final da noite, para começar, e dentro de um ou
    dois dias, ela pode estar confortável suficiente para teclar com
    você ou falar com você até altas horas de noite, ainda que se ela este desconfortável com a idéia em
    adiante lugar.

    Numa segunda parte do estudo, cada mulher recebeu um dos modelos
    de pênis e pôde examiná-lo por 30 segundos. Em seguida, foi pedido a elas que
    selecionassem mesmo modelo de no interior de uma caixa contendo os
    33 modelos, ou imediatamente depois de examiná-lo ou depois de preencher um questionário que levava dez minutos (para dar um intervalo de tempo).

    Informar através a palestras, demonstração e vídeos
    sobre prevenção dos Cânceres a Colo do Útero e Mama, com objetivo a orientar
    às mulheres no idade fértil atendidas no PSF IX Antônio Lúcio Peixoto,
    situada no Bairro Vila Abastada da cidade com Barreiras-BA.

    Rama et al. (2008) também descreve que a pequena cota de mulheres com persistência da infecção,
    possivelmente possuem uma falha do mecanismo imunológico, que provocaria adulteração no epitélio cervical e
    posterior alteração maligna. Sendo que a persistência da infecção
    por tipos virais de alto risco do HPV é considerada, verdadeiro grupo de risco para
    acréscimo do câncer do colo uterino.

    E certa informação muito útil – Os mulheres de hoje buscam homens que
    as façam felizer e não homens com status que as esnobam e as deixam mal.
    Um micropênis é definido por estar muito abaixo da média da população.

    Comparado com cadáver da população, em
    um adulto, micropênis é menor do que 4 cm quando flácido e 7,5 cm
    cada vez que ereto.

    Já gráfico 2 revela quanto os idosos se sentem incomodados por causa de cansaço.
    Os números revelam que 60% dos pessoas do grupo 1 sentem algum desconforto quanto ao mesmo.

    Já quanto ao grupo 2, 100% afirmam se sentirem incomodados.

    Esses efeitos permitem entender que a atividade física, no caso a
    caminhada, é sério a amenizar os consequências do cansaço
    nos idosos.

    “A Preserv tem uma airosidade ‘teen’, um pouco menor, para adolescentes, exatamente com essa finalidade. Mas há casos a jovens que compram camisinha mais alto, às ocasiões para se apresentar, e ela acaba saindo durante ato sexual e ficando dentro da menina”, lembra.

    Assim a partir da Conferência Mundial sobre a saúde da mulher na china, no ano de 1995 governo Brasileiro passou a investir na detecção do câncer do colo do
    útero. programa Autóctone de controle do câncer do colo de
    útero ” Viva Mulher”, entretanto, objetivando, reduzir a mortalidade e
    as repercussões físicas, psíquicas e sociais desses
    cânceres na mulher brasileira, oferecendo serviços para prevenção e
    também diagnostico no estágios iniciais da doença, e também também
    no tratamento, bem como monitoramento da qualidade do atendimento
    à mulher nas distintos etapas do programa.
    As técnicas de implantação prevêem a resolução das necessidades
    nas seguintes condutas, articular integrar qualquer
    rede interior, reduzir a desigualdade de acesso da mulher à rede de saúde,
    motivar a mulher a cuidar da saúde, melhorar a qualidade do atendimento, aumentar a eficiência da rede de controle do câncer (ARABUTÃ, 2000).

    pênis normal, quando ereto, tem entre 12 e 14 centímetros de altura.
    Foi por isso que escrevi um andança, liberando lhe todos
    os segredos dos melhores consultores com sedução do
    mundo! Estes segredos têm poder de literalmente lhe tornar uma máquina a conquistar mulheres.

    Esquecer preconceito – Se você está interessado em como seduzir uma fêmea mais velha então você assuma sua escolha.
    Ficar encanado com a diferença de idade de outra maneira
    com que os outros vão pensar só vai atrapalhar.
    E outra, se acesso perceber sua insegurança tem grandes chances de pular
    fora.

    Na hora de seduzir uma mulher sua afetação possui que
    falar mais alto, hesitar é um dos maiores erros, que você pode cometer.
    Se ela estiver adepto questão vai rolar, você saberá exatamente
    que fazer e ela deixará mais confortável possível na situação.
    Não tenha receio, antes de pensar em levar um não,
    pense sempre no sim. Uma postura animado é passaporte para sucesso na sedução.

    Bônus 4 – Método cafajeste de seduzir as mulheres.
    Sua alicerce sexual isto prestes a mudar para constantemente.

    Descubra agora todos os segredos para elevar seu pênis sem dor, cirurgias ou medicamentos.
    Indispensável de aparência 100% natural. A empatia é
    essencial para a sedução. Cada mulher é diferente, então, adapte
    seu encontro, suas palavras e ações a essa mulher específica.
    Você precisa perceber que ela pensa antes de poder calhar prazer pelo qual ela anseia.

    Que (nome da pessoa amada) queira me abraçar, me beijar, cuidar de mim, me proteger, me adorar
    todos os minutos, todos os segundos, de todos os dias de sua vida.
    Que me ame a cada dia melhor e que sinta prazer somente comigo.
    São José, marido devoto da Virgem Maria, bendita
    cerca de as mulheres, completamente pura e também imaculada, Faça com que (Cidadão de tal) seja digno respeitoso e também fiel.

    Dr. Luis Henrique: que gera dúvida é tamanho ideal de órgão sexual
    masculino. brasileiro possui um pênis que pode ter de 14,5 a 15cm ereto em meio.
    Um pênis de 12cm já pode gerar certa satisfação sexual boa.
    Abaixo disso, pode ter, realmente, um comprometimento do prazer no sexo.
    Daí, nesses casos, quando pênis é pequeno mesmo, abaixo de 11cm, tratamento é
    mais que indicado. Com a maior parte dos pacientes,
    pênis não é pequeno. Eu seria capaz prevenir que 99% das vezes
    não é, mas, convencer do contrário é bem difícil.
    que frequentemente existe é qualquer falsa carimbo de que pênis é pequeno.
    Um dos detalhes é que quando homem olha pênis de cima, ele parece menor do que quando olha ele de lado.

    ponto de visão acaba gerando, mais qualquer vez, a falsa carimbo do tamanho.

    Procure algo nela que você sinceramente aprecia, mas que nunca mencionou.
    Pode ser a beleza das mãos ou de outra parte do corpo (Sim, elogie a aparência e corpo de sua fêmea, não importa
    quanto ela envelheceu ou quantos quilinhos ganhou, se você amá-la tal como precisa
    amar, e tal como alor merece ser amada, tenho certeza que ainda verá muita, muita beleza em sua esposa), pode ser a maneira como ela organiza ou limpa algo, pode até ainda que ser
    a forma como acesso te faz carinho. imprescindível é que ela
    entenda que você a aprecia. Faça seguinte experimento:
    procure 3 coisas diferentes para elogiá-la toda a semana.
    Você se apaixonará mais por sua esposa do que nunca imaginou.

    De acordo Janice (2004) A insuficiência renal crônica pode passar por quatro estágios:
    1- Reserva renal reduzida (taxa de filtração glomerular TFG entre 35 e 50% do normal);
    2 – Insuficiência renal (TFG entre 20 e 35% do normal); 3 – Falência renal (TFG entre 20 e 25% do normal); 4
    – Doença renal terminal (TFG abaixo de 20% do normal).
    Essa síndrome é fatal se não for tratada, mas a manutenção em diálise
    ou certo transplante renal pode elevar a sobrevida
    do cliente.

    Mas segundo os médicos pênis não pode aumentar já que não é um muculos como um bíceps por exemplo que cresce conforme você faz exercícios.
    Jelq foi passado durante gerações e até hoje é um dos recursos mais utilizados para aumentar pênis.

    A grande vantagem do Jelq é que possibilita elevar pênis naturalmente e sem uso de nenhum
    aparelho.

    Nós nos conhecemos pela internet, faz dois meses que conversamos,
    ao contrário de mim foi ele que se declarou, enviava mensagem dizendo
    que nunca parava de pensar no mim e as coisas foram fluindo, eu como sempre desconfiada,
    até que estava tão enérgico que nunca conseguia em grau superior me
    conter, me apaixonei também e intensamente. Eu era casada e ele separado, acabei me separando pra viver esse amor, quando
    estavamos quase nos conhecendo pessoalmente apareceram
    muitos problemas, ele adoeceu dentro de São Paulo e como eu estava cuidando da minha mãe que
    estava doente nunca tive como viajar, logo que minha mãe foi internada, ele também foi e quem estava
    ajudando ele no São Paulo era a ex mulher dele. Agora imagina minha acontecimentos,
    mas minha mãe era em grau superior fundamental naquele momento mas eu estava sofrendo demais nem poder isto com ele.

    Há várias hipóteses destinado a aumento do pénis, quer
    em comprimento, quer em diâmetro. Nenhuma está isenta de riscos, no entanto, as cirurgias são as
    únicas formas relativamente seguras do aumento do órgão erótico masculino, todas as
    outras são embustes mais ou menos desonestos.

    Agora Dawkins começa a responder à questão proposta.
    Na prática, que significa dizer que uma mãe possui um adepto
    preferido? Significa que alor distribuirá seus aptidões de maneira desigual entre os filhos.
    Esses aptidões incluem, além do alimento, esforço para sua
    procura, risco da aba das crias, a energia e também tempo dedicados à manutenção do ninho ou do
    lar, e também em alguns casos, tempo gasto no ensino
    dos filhos.

    Portanto, se você toda vez tentou se consolar acreditando que massa não é arquivo saiba que dimensão do pênis
    faz diferença sim. Porém, para tudo há uma solução.
    Muitos querem saber a como aumentar pênis de maneira rápida , isso tudo é possível
    através de uma princípios 100% natural.

    Ao tentar conquistar uma companheira casada,
    certifique-se de que ela não está brincando com os seus sentimentos.

    Não adianta de modo nenhum você abalroar numa relação em que não há reciprocidade.
    Se você realmente quiser que ela deixe marido para aceitar
    abrangência fora do aliança, tenha certeza com que ela não vê você
    como um passatempo. Como antes os dois deixarem claro tipo de intenção
    com relacionamento, melhor será para este e aquele.

    Essa piroca tem uma leve curvatura para a direita ou para a esquerda.

    Algumas mulheres ficam meio encabuladas com sexo com esse característica de pênis, será que só entra de lado?
    Será que acontece pra fazer em muitas posições? Ah, bobagem gatas!
    dono desse formato saberá bem como usá-lo, então tente buscar maneiras de sentir muito prazer.
    Mas vale acentuar que curvaturas muito exageradas são capazes
    de estar anunciador de algumas doenças, se isso for
    caso do seu parceiro, oriente- a buscar ajuda médica.

    Existem médias para qualquer anosidade, mas crescimento do pênis acontece até os 18 anos e não existe um hora específico em que
    ele acontece. Ele pode chegar perto do tamanho máximo antes dos 14 anos,
    assim como pode chegar lá só aos 18. Varia de pessoa para pessoa. http://pedaludico.org/visual/picture.php?/319

    Reply

Leave a Reply

  • (will not be published)

You can support the work of Bellingcat by donating through the following link:

TRUST IN JOURNALISM - IMPRESS