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“No Safe Spaces on the Flat Earth” – Emergent Alt-Right Inspired Flat Earth Online Communities

June 7, 2017

By Aric Toler

Translations: Русский

In the spring of 2017, NBA superstar Kyrie Irving and NBA Hall of Famer Shaquille O’Neal both publicly discussed their belief that the world is flat, although Shaq later clarified that he was joking. These statements brought light to what Live Science called “the ultimate conspiracy theory” — a refutation of the globe, and with it, heliocentrism and even the theory of gravity. This being the internet, it is not shocking to find groups who believe in anything, whether it is that pterodactyls still fly in our skies or that people live at the center of the “hollow earth.” While there are plenty of believers in chemtrails and vaccination conspiracies that rely on faulty science, these other fringe-of-the-fringe theories that refute the most basic scientific understanding of our world garner little to no mainstream traction. However, flat earth ideas have moved incrementally towards the mainstream. After examining these flat earth online communities, it becomes clear that there are common threads and a similar vocabulary shared between them and the alt-right communities that gained prominence in 2016. Here, we will outline what online flat earth communities look like, what they believe, and answer perhaps most commonly asked question about the flat earth theory: do people actually believe this?

Flat Earth Beliefs

The central tenet of the flat earth movement is obvious — the earth is flat, rather than a sphere.

The exact details of how a flat earth works differ among believers, but generally the earth is seen as a flat disc with the sun and moon revolving around it. Most flat earth models have the North Pole at the center of the flat disc and a ring of ice (Antarctica) surrounding it.

Representation of a flat earth with revolving sun and moon

Representation of a flat earth with revolving sun and moon

For a more detailed explanation of flat earth beliefs, see Ashley Feinberg’s concise explainer from 2016 here. However, there are flat earth heretics who believe in a different map, including (as The Guardian detailed in 2016) one prominent flat earth YouTuber who believes that Antarctica is at the center of the flat disc, and not along the rim.

If one were to sincerely adopt the belief of a flat earth, it would require a reshaping of other notions, such as the nature of the universe and elementary laws of physics. Thus, the beliefs surrounding flat earth communities are rarely isolated to just the shape of the planet, and will extend to rejecting the most basic tenets of physics and astronomy, such as Copernican heliocentrism (the earth revolves around the sun, and not the other way around) and the theory of gravity. YouTube channels, Facebook groups, and Imgur albums provide endless examples (and variations) of these alternative laws of physics.

The cognitive dissonance required to believe that the earth is flat leads to a number of absurd subsequent beliefs, including, as best documented by Sam Kriss in The Atlantic, that there are actually no forests on earth. An 80-minute video, embedded below, lays out the details of the idea, which as Kriss describes, goes beyond simple assertions about forests and veers into nonsensical “mythic assonances.”

Online Communities

Flat earth beliefs are nothing new. Through much of the 20th century, the International Flat Earth Society and the Flat Earth News served as the most visible communities for those who believed in or were curious about the alternative world view.

December 1980 edition of the Flat Earth News (source)

There is no need to elaborate on how the internet has accelerated the spread of some conspiracy theories, whether it be ancient (yet, still active) Usenet groups, GIF-heavy Geocities sites, and eventually somewhat through websites like InfoWars. In the latest development, YouTube and social networks have accelerated the spread of flat earth ideas, with tens of thousands of followers on various Facebook pages, Instagram accounts (see this AV Club primer on the topic), and endless YouTube videos with men (and a few women) speaking over a slideshow of shoddily-edited photographs and memes.

These memes have become a new focal point for flat earth believers in their attempts to spread their message and persuade others. Most recently, the flat earth movement has adopted “Fepe,” or “Flat Earth Pepe,” to spread their ideas. This character is a spin-off of the alt-right favorite, Pepe the frog, though Fepe is supposed to be a penguin.


A penguin was chosen for Fepe in order to reference that Antarctica is (as they believe) on the edge of the earth, rather than the bottom. Lacking a grasp on gravity and basic physics, many flat earth believers assert that it is impossible to be “upside-down” on Antarctica, and only a flat earth would explain why penguins do not fall off into space while at the “bottom” of the world. In one especially dramatic video, Pepe is transformed into Fepe, showing what is perceived to be a continuation of the alt-right use of Pepe.

Similarly, flat earth believers have recently picked up the #Globexit hashtag, playing off of Brexit, to share their ideas. Taking the cue of far-right internet activists who shared memes in support of Trump, Brexit, and Marine Le Pen, #Globexit is being pushed as an ideological movement.

Offshoot of the Alt-Right?

Flat earth believers’ recent use of alt-right favorite Pepe and #Globexit is not a coincidence, as many of their ideological tenets and goals can be found in the alt-right. This is not to say that the alt-right believes that the earth is flat–in fact, most on the alt-right would likely see flat earth believers’ use of their memes and methods as a detriment to their far-right causes. Rather, modern flat earth online communities should be seen as inspired by the alt-right, as opposed to the previous iterations of flat earth communities, which were rooted in literalist readings of the Bible and fringe Christian evangelical movements.

Flat earth beliefs are not just a break from scientific logic, but more centrally an explicit rejection of mainstream political authority. According to flat earth believers, the round earth is more than a scientific lie; it extends to a grand conspiracy orchestrated by the global order and perpetuated by a range of institutions, both real (NASA) and imaginary (the Illuminati). With this, we see the common threads between flat earth online communities and alt-right ones, with similar messaging strategies and a shared vocabulary of describing their ideological foes. For example, many Trump fans believe that their massive propagation of pro-Trump Pepe memes had a tangible effect on his electoral victory (as seen in the “rare Pepe” tweet below, posted just before the presidential election). Following this success, they tried to replicate their “meme war” to push far-right politician Marine Le Pen to victory in the French presidential election.

The same tactics are being borrowed by flat earth believers, with the spread of Fepe as a means of spreading the “truth” of flat earth. A British man named Joseph Green has taken this notion to its logical end point with his GoFundMe crowd-funding campaign to raise money for a “Flat Earth Meme Factory,” which would “be operational for 50+ hours every week; producing and sharing flat earth content throughout the world wide web.” His pitch is a bit convoluted, to put it mildly, as he explains why the Flat Earth Meme Factory is a good “investment”:

Whether you’re part of the flat earth movement or not, I promise you this is the best place you can invest your money right now. Once my objective is complete, your money will be worthless anyway.

Green’s insistence that “money will be worthless” after flat earth truth spreads across the globe (or the disc) underscores the world-changing stakes for which flat earth believers feel they are fighting. To accept flat earth does not just mean rejecting the globe, but rejecting all political and scientific authority, thus changing your entire worldview. In another recent development in flat earth online communities, the sudden cognitive shift that takes place after discovering flat earth ideas is compared to the red pill. The red pill idea is originally from The Matrix, marking the main character’s decision to see the world in its undisguised form, and has been adopted by a number of alt-right and misogynist online communities to mark the ideological shift that takes place in adopting these fringe viewpoints.

This is far from the only vocabulary borrowed from the alt-right movement, as flat earth believers also echo the frequent alt-right/conservative refrain of disrupting “safe spaces” with their ideas. Their means of disrupting so-called safe spaces mostly involves spamming flat earth memes, but they also go outside and try and spread their ideas in the real world. In the video below, a flat earth believer conducts a stand-up comedy bit at a Manchester comedy club’s amateur comedy night. The narrator explains how this open mic bit shows how there are “no more safe spaces left, no safe spaces on flat earth, YouTube cannot contain this thing, the Internet cannot contain it, the dam has broken, we are everywhere…”

To “red pill” someone is the same as disrupting their safe space, allowing a supposedly world-changing ideology to break down existing political orders. InfoWar’s Paul Joseph Watson was mostly known for his belief in chemtrails and other bizarre conspiracies before the rise of the alt-right, while now he is a YouTube mainstay spreading far-right and misogynist views to (mostly) young men–or, in other words, red-pilling them.

So, this all brings us to our final question: do people actually believe this? In short, yes.

Clearly, there are many people who write about flat earth and create memes about it sarcastically–for many examples of this, check out the Flatearth subreddit or pretty much any 4chan thread on the topic. But there are genuine true believers, from Bible literalists to the emerging alt-right inspired flat earth communities. A recent article in Psychology Today convincingly asserts that many adopt flat-earthism through a cascading series of events leading to a mistrust of science and, more so, political and scientific authority. This, combined with a few snazzy YouTube videos and impressionable minds, can lead to some people genuinely believing the earth is flat. Despite its bizarre resurgence, it is difficult to see ideas about the flat earth having anywhere near a fraction of the pull that alt-right ideas have had, despite the similar tactics and vocabulary. However, the ideas are not going away anytime soon, no matter how often us globeheads–or, in the alt-right inspired variation, “globecucks“–try to convince people otherwise.

And if you still don’t think that people believe in flat earth, just read the comments below.

Aric Toler

Aric Toler started volunteering for Bellingcat in 2014 and has been on staff since 2015. He currently heads up Bellingcat's training efforts and its Eastern Europe/Eurasia research.

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  1. Ian

    This a gold mine I have stumble upon! Normally I head over to YouTube after a beer or two to scoff at the “everything is fake” wankers but here in front of me is infested with nutters. Where did they all come from? Do they use RSS feeds to intercept globe earth liars posting their lies?
    I particularly enjoyed the Dennis contributions, good luck with the !st grade physics test when you finally take it Dennis.

  2. Richard

    Its nice to see bellingcat covering the issue in detail, but I think less emphasis should be payed on the beliefs of different groups and people in any given ‘movement’ and what should be covered instead are details on the latest findings, like for example the CIA confirming the very real use of chemtrails – and new technology now available to the public that allow us to find no curvature over 1000 miles. I do hope bellingcat can come through on some of what is actually important, and leave what is not. We can only speculate on what the real Earth we live on looks like – but we are right to question the official narrative if our own findings differ greatly. Here are some examples –

  3. Mr Level

    The truth of flat earth is accepted by ones that have an experience of a fixed plane.

    A desire for reason dictates a single “boss,” cognitively, for non-schizophrenics. If an incongruity arises there are a few ways to cope.
    1. Dominance- deny the unexpected occurred
    2. Compromise- fit it improperly into a current primary context
    3. Disruption- no response to data defying expectation
    4. Recognition- inappropriate expectations are discarded

    Sense data from the perceptual field shows a fixed plane of earth. Because that defies expectation people will either:
    1. Deny the fixed plane data because it doesn’t fit a globe model
    2. The data can fit both models but a compromise is made so that only the globe model is accepted
    3. Gross failure to organize the incongruity of fixed plane data in perception with a viewing condition of the globe model
    4. Recognize the data doesn’t fit a globe model, discard the globe model

    Refer to Gregory Bateson’s work on schizophrenia and Jerome Bruner and Leo Postman’s work on incongruity. And refer to “The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent” by Claus-Christian Carbon, Cognition 116 (1):130-135 (2010).

    • I guess

      I guess no model at this moment in a non timespace assumed universe can to Amy’s satisfaction explain everything. The lack of knowledge pertaining Gravitation as factual assumption set to a sphere is already something I guess no scientist can actual explain with Schwarzschild. Because…

  4. no

    The flat earth has always been a trolling endeavor.
    It masquerades as a conspiracy theory, bible based, alt right. Therefore it wants to undermine conspiracy theorists, bible literalists (which often constitutes a troll of a troll), and alt rights. If you want to know what is the cause of human action, concentrate on what are the effects.

    Anyway, just two days ago, for the umpteenth time, conspiracy nuts are proven right. No, not because there has been a conspiracy. Because conspiracy deniers (the true nuts, because they construct a perfect inner world ignoring history) always say: conspiracies cannot happen because when too many people are involved someone spills the beans.
    But, and I repeat it’s just the latest scandal, here in an Italian hospital, ALL the staff knew of cronyism yet NOBODY acted upon it, because, hey they would put their job at risk.

    And to the conspiracy denialists that still try to rationalize it, “well then somebody must have leaked so the theory is still valid”: the investigation stemmed from intercepted communications and AFTER they starting investigating they found themselves against a wall of denial. There is even a word for it, Omerta’.

  5. Nine

    I personally love the silly buggers (even though I avoid their content, presence), the serious ones for the absurdity of their sincere beliefs, and the trolls for keeping everyone’s faith in humanity well in check.

    I defy anyone to prove that money will still be able to buy things if the flat earth meme factory succeeds in changing mainstream cosmology, I think that bloke is dead on about that being a precursor to social collapse.

  6. Nathan Dunning

    Ignorance is no excuse. Faulty Science? Chemtrails are no longer conspiracy theory they are a Fact. Even John Bolten admitted to the Geoengineering called Stratospheric Particle Injections aka Chem Trails. Use own eye’s and descern what you see rather than accept the Lies without Question.

    • Larry landcaster

      So, there is this grand conspiracy, what is the end goal of this conspiracy? Why do would NASA and other scientists supposedly fake, physics, math, chemistry, and biology? What is the gain?


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