the home of online investigations

You can support the work of Bellingcat by donating through the following link:

The Dilan Cruz Shooting: Tracking Officer 003478

December 3, 2019

By Giancarlo Fiorella

In collaboration with Colombia’s La Liga Contra el Silencio and Cerosetenta, Newsy and Bellingcat reconstructed the shooting of Dilan Cruz, an 18-year-old student who was hit in the head with a bean bag round at a protest in Bogota on November 23, 2019. Cruz died from his injuries in hospital two days later. 

Using a combination of open source videos and footage collected by our Colombian partners, we were able to identify the officer who shot Cruz by tracking his movements across several videos:

Working Backwards: Tracking Officer 003478

The process of identifying the officer who shot Cruz began with two videos showing the injury that eventually claimed Cruz’s life. 

One video captured after he fell to the ground showed what appeared to be a bean bag round lodged in his skull. The second video, captured while he was receiving first aid, showed a woman struggling to remove what appears to be a piece of cloth from his skull. When she is unable pull the material out of Cruz’s head, the others prevented her from continuing her efforts, saying, “It’s lodged in there! It’s lodged in there.” 

Two images from footage taken after Cruz’s shooting showing the bean bag round that impacted him (Source: left and right)

On November 28, three days after his death, a coroner confirmed that Cruz had been killed by a “bean bag” fired from a shotgun that caused “penetrating trauma” to his skull. 

We began to analyze the images and videos captured at the scene of his shooting to determine whether the officer who fired the shot was visible in any of them. As a first step, this involved identifying which officers were carrying shotguns capable of firing bean bags. Not all of them were, after all:  Some officers carried no weapons, while other carried riot shields or tear gas launchers. 

One officer who was carrying a shotgun caught our attention. Approximately one minute before Cruz is shot, officer 003478 charges at a group of people across the street and fires two bean bags from his shotgun. This shooting was captured in two videos: one by a human rights activist broadcast on Facebook Live, and the other by a person on the scene shared with La Liga Contra el Silencio and Cerosetenta.

To track officer 003478’s movements in the minute leading up to Cruz’s shooting, we examined his uniform to determine whether he was wearing any uniquely identifying articles of clothing, and he was — a black police hat with a yellow brim hung off his right side, as did a long object (possibly from a zip-tie). None of the other officers around 003478 had these items on their uniforms. 

Note the yellow-brimmed police hat and the long object hanging off officer 003478’s side (Source)

Because no one video captured officer 003478’s movements from the time that he fired the first two shots to the time he fired the third, tracking him across the footage using these identifiers proved vital.

Here is officer 003478 approaching the intersection where Cruz fell. Note the yellow-brimmed hat and the long on his right side, as well as the fact that he is at the front of the police formation:

Officer 003478 moving forward towards the intersection where Cruz was shot (Source)

A video shared with La Liga Contra el Silencio and Cerosetenta offered the clearest footage of the shooting. In this video, officer 003478 can be seen raising and firing his shotgun towards the intersection were Cruz falls. Seconds later, he advances towards the intersection with his shotgun raised. At that moment, the yellow-brimmed police hat and the long object  at the right side of the officer become visible:

Seconds after shooting Cruz, Officer 003478 moves towards the spot where he fell. Note the yellow-brimmed hat and the stick at his right side (Source)

The investigation into the killing of Dilan Cruz is ongoing as of this publication, according to the Colombian authorities.

Giancarlo Fiorella

Giancarlo is an investigator and trainer for Latin America at Bellingcat. He is also a PhD candidate at the Centre for Criminology & Sociolegal Studies at the University of Toronto, where his research focuses on protest policing and civil conflict. For questions and story ideas, you can reach him via email at, or on Twitter (@gianfiorella).

Join the Bellingcat Mailing List:

Enter your email address to receive a weekly digest of Bellingcat posts, links to open source research articles, and more.


  1. Karen Lizeth Portilla Benavides

    Buenas tardes, Quisiera hacer una única aclaración del video, en los videos se ve que Dilan lanza los gases lacrimógenos al otro lado de su calle, no al SMAD como se dice allí, ya que ellos están al otro costado

    • Virtual

      Translated it with a program to English: Good afternoon, I would like to make a single clarification of the video, in the videos it is seen that Dilan throws the tear gas on the other side of his street, not the SMAD as they say there, since they are on the other side

    • Mark

      Karen, quieres decir que por que lanzó los gases lacrimógenos (devolvió a la policía mejor dicho, porqué el Esmad fueron lanzando los gases) que Dilan mereció morir?

  2. Dayakeuy

    004378 or 003478? There are differences in writing in the text and photo caption. Please be more thorough and consistent. One different number, fatal error. Thank you

  3. Dave Mason

    I can see *0347* clearly. the first digit may not be a zero and the last could be a star?

  4. Jorge

    Congrats! Fact-driven reports like these substantially enrich the democratic conversation amid the polarizing opinions of supporters and critics of the recent protests. Have you thought about doing some forensic analysis of footage before Dilan was hit by the “bean bag”? Some media outlets have reported that anti-riot squad (“ESMAD”) was protecting ICETEX (Colombia’s higher education financial aid agency), whose offices are one or two blocks from where Dilan was hit. However, no evidence against or behalf this affirmation has been made public. Why ESMAD was trying to disperse the formation held by protestants?


Leave a Reply

  • (will not be published)

You can support the work of Bellingcat by donating through the following link: