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Russia’s War in Ukraine: The Medals and Treacherous Numbers

August 31, 2016

By Bellingcat Investigation Team

Translations: Русский

The full report can be downloaded here stock_save_pdf

The war in eastern Ukraine is known under multiple names; most often formulations similar to Ukrainian civil war or Ukrainian conflict are still used to describe the war. The implied characteristic as solely internal Ukrainian conflict is heavily disputed and an active Russian participation is widely accepted. While there is now plentiful evidence documenting a direct and decisive participation of Russian servicemen and the Russian armed forces in the fighting in eastern Ukraine since summer 2014, it is however not possible to support the various claims about the size of the Russian involvement using public available information.

Given the nature of open source evidence, it is near impossible to provide an exact number of Russian servicemen participating in the fighting in eastern Ukraine only relying on this type of information. The open source research done by @Askai707 and InformNapalm strongly suggest that – at minimum – hundreds of Russian servicemen were involved in the fighting so far. The most direct evidence could be provided by the Russian bureaucracy. However, such an information is also most likely a Russian state secret and not publicly available. Other information, similar to official statistics, would also allow an estimation of the number of involved Russian servicemen. Such information is available in previously published individual cases of Russian servicemen.

Previous published analyses identified Russian servicemen who published imagery of awarded medals. This imagery is valuable because most of the higher Russian medals have a consecutive numbering, explicitly stating the number of medals awarded so far. Therefore, imagery from two medals awarded at different dates allows us to calculate the number of awarded medals between both dates. Awards of four medals are analyzed in this report. It is possible to demonstrate that the number of awarded medals, compared to the years before 2014, suddenly and strongly increased in 2014 and 2015. The large number of awarded medals “For Distinction in Combat”, 4300 awards between 07.11.2014 and 18.02.2016, strongly suggests larger combat operations with active Russian military involvement in this period. In sum, the data suggests that more than ten thousand medals of all four considered types were awarded in the considered period. Therefore, it can be directly concluded that:

  • Thousands of Russian servicemen participated in 2014 and 2015 in combat operations and were awarded with medals for their actions in these operations.

Because of the evidence presented in preceding reports documenting the presence of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in eastern Ukraine and its participating in the fighting, and because it is a rather unrealistic assumption that every Russian serviceman participating or involved in the fighting in eastern Ukraine has been awarded with one of the discussed medals, it is possible to conclude:

  • Most likely far more than ten thousand Russian servicemen participated in combat operations in eastern Ukraine.
  • Most likely tens of thousands Russian servicemen participated in or contributed to the fighting in eastern Ukraine.

In sum, the findings of this report support the claims that thousands of Russian servicemen were active in eastern Ukraine. With these findings, it is also possible to strongly increase the lower data-based estimate of Russian servicemen involved in the fighting in eastern Ukraine using only open source information.

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474 Comments

  1. Mad Dog

    However, this is really a great piece on Soviet, oops, Russian media getting the tables turned on them. here this guy is calmly detailing the facts and the announcer starts getting into an apoplectic fit. Pretty funny to watch the mood change as this guy starts hearing about Russian meddling. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwwtSWk_7og

    But hell, why not just use old photos to prove your opinions about current events. This is a technique mastered by those great propagandists, the Soviets: Okay, this is a biased site, but unless one can prove that these accusations are fake, then I guess we have to believe that there is an active propaganda machine running full bore in Russia. Stranger, wonder if you have seen any of these images on your infrequent viewing of Russian TV: http://euromaidanpress.com/2014/06/17/fakes-of-russian-propaganda-2/#arvlbdata

    Reply
    • stranger

      Whatever propaganda from whatever side is living it’s own life. Who cares what propaganda paints? What matters is what is actually going on, and that is far not so straightforward as you guys are saying.

      Reply
  2. Dude

    stranger – September 12, 2016
    Look, since ussr collapsed, for all 25 years Ukrainian ‘elite’ was trying to prove Ukrainian not Russians and tear Ukraine from Russia.
    ——
    Heheheh.. russians are incurable. Comrade “stranger”, FYI (and please do pass this info to Comrade Major, for his general education):

    1) Ukraine had restored it independence 25 years ago and and all this time it has been a separate state. Separate. From Russia. Understand? 🙂

    2) Ukrainians are NOT russians. Never were.

    Write this down, and repeat everyday before breakfast. Maybe then your insanity will go away…

    🙂

    Reply
    • stranger

      Dude, you please don’t decide for all Ukrainians. Start from yourself first: “I, Dude, is not Russian”, and repeat it 3 times before going to bed every day to forget Russian language and become genuine Ukrainian. There are elections which were supposed to show what Ukrainians want. All South East and all Crimea voted for more or less pro Russian Yanukovich with a very high overweight. All the west voted against him with the same highest overweigh. All South East and all Crimea are speaking Russian language every day. All the west is speaking Ukrainian. All South East and all Crimea didn’t welcome the heroisation of H1tler collaborationists. Who are real Ukrainians – west, Galistsia? According to Solzhenitsyn the mistake of Ukrainian nationalists were to claim the lands which have never ever been Ukrainian, Crimea and the South East. That doesn’t mean they all should go to Russia. But that does mean the genuine Ukrainians from the west, Galitsia, should not enforce Ukrainians from the South East own views, own language, and own historically negative attitude to Russia. You would get what you’ve got otherwise – a civil war. Ukraine is independent – great, but be friendly to Russia and first of all, get the consensus internally. What are you doing instead – a neo-na3i youth military camps? Ok not everybody is neo na3i. You will not manage without Russia anyway. Nobody welcomes you in Europe, because of too different life standards and all other standards. Sooner or later you will have to revert the hostility to Russia.

      Reply
      • Dude

        OMG, what a dumdum!

        Many Ukrainians speak russian, even as their first language,
        but that does not mean that you, or your fuhrer Putler may decide what’s good
        for them, and especially wage a war against Ukraine, annex Ukrainian lands, etc… !

        Reply
        • stranger

          Ukrainians are not the same, are they? Lvov, Odessa, Donetsk, Sevastopol, not the same people and views, are they? You should find an agreement inside Ukraine itself first, otherwise – Odessa, otherwise Donbas. Why the nationalists should decide for everybody that they want to split with Russia? I understand that Putin didn’t add the support for the unity idea. But Ukrainian nationalists are very active in order to split, they are the minority but they are 10 times more active. Putin and Ukrainian nationalists and US helped each other’s, so it looks like.

          P.S. Please drop you nasty habit to insult personally, we are not in Ukraine.

          Reply
          • Dude

            Ukrainians are different and diverse, but that’s none of your (or Putler’s) business, is not it?

            🙂

          • stranger

            It would not be Russian business if some western ukrainians didn’t pull Ukraine out from Russia in terms of trades, in terms of culture, language, and just animal hostility and other mostly eastern Ukrainians, who have had a deep mutual history with Russia, didn’t oppose them and appeal to Russia instead and if they didn’t fight each other such as in Odessa. I’m afraid the question is put in the way not to be with Europe or without, but to be hostile to Russia or friendly. That is important to Russia. A large market, the gas transit, the rights of Russian speaking Ukrainians, and just the feeling that Slavs are together. Moreover the west is using Ukraine now as a leverage against Russia, so that Ukrainians themselves are not really interesting to the west.

          • stranger

            Lvov from Sevastopol (a little bit less – Odessa and Donetsk) is different exactly by what concerns the attitude to Russia. Isn’t it? Why it is not Russian business? Not a war of course.

          • stranger

            Good luck of course. I’m not a commander-in-chief to talk on behalf of Russia. I’m simply talking about my own understanding.

          • Dude

            OMG, this rushka troll “stranger” is certifiably insane, is not it?
            I gave myself a word to never discuss anything with russians, because they are crazy, and I did it again, and I regret it again…

            P.S. Ouups..

            🙂

          • stranger

            You can see the perfect example of Ukrainian nationalism here. Who said Russians in Crimea and south east can feel safe? 🙂

          • stranger

            “with russians, because they are crazy” that means that i’m not the only cra3y Russian, and you have seen others! Like in the old stup1d joke:
            – boss, boss, be careful on the road, one 1nsane is driving against the flow
            – only one? there are thousands of them here!

    • stranger

      John, do you really believe in all that nonsense or you are kidding us? Heritage, Atlantic Consil (the best friends of b/c), NAT0 StratCom in Latvia, they just have nothing to do other than invent tons of that nonsense to make an illusion they are working and that they generate any ideas, in fact they generate nothing but nonsense. Fortunately none of them has anything to do with the governments. You can think about those ‘think tanks’ as you are thinking about Dugin or Ghirinovskiy in Russia – weird but harmless.

      Reply
      • Sammy3

        Stranger, why do Russians use 0 instead of O in NATO? Is this special code for searching at the troll farm?

        Or is your O key broken, so all the trolls across all forums use the 0.

        Pretty amateurish……

        Reply
        • stranger

          We discussed that, because bellingcat included this word in the grey list of keywords triggering moderation. To avoid the delay due to moderation.
          Why are changing your nicks?

          Reply
    • stranger

      Here you can also find a lot of other craap like that:
      http://www.stratcomcoe.org/publications
      Those ‘think tanks’ even looking so aggressive, are harmless, with the only negative influence coming from them is propaganda. That informational tide will roll back when the fashion to make an enemy from Russia is gone.
      I even think that Ukrainians don’t completely understand what Gene(demon) they are releasing from a bottle by loudly complaining to Russia to US and EU and begging to push Russia harder. I can imagine their surprise if it ends up with WW3 and one of the nuke warheads targeted to Moscow from over Atlantic would land in Kiev: тююю, а нас то за шо?? Although the economical wars would not be helpful either. 🙂

      John, have you been posting such articles for entertaining or do you really believe your are fighting with Putin (ok, not Russia, just Putin) by that?

      Reply
    • stranger

      Sorry, the last comment since i’m talking to myself only here. I’ve skimmed over the article a bit.

      Expert in Somalia Piracy??
      “—Martin N. Murphy, PhD is a political and strategic analyst and internationally recognized expert on piracy and unconventional conflict at sea.”

      That is a weird mixture of various stereotypes with the factual fragments. The author is very weak in the topic he is describing and is trying to push it into standard clichés like American dominance, Russian malicious plot, etc etc.

      Honestly, as far as geopolitics go, read better Brzezinski for example, he is known to be anti-Russian ‘son of a b1tch’ (a phrasal idiom), but he is a smart ‘son of a b1tch’ (a phrasal idiom) with real (geo)political experience, in contrast to that nonsense. He is anti-Russia (at least not pro-Russian) and pro-American (just his job implied so) – I promise you, but he is smart enough to turn it into logical and factual arguments.

      Btw he is Polish himself, born btw in Ukraine, emigrated to US, served in US administration as the national security advisor of US president during the cold war with soviets. He detailed very much the Russia, Ukraine and their relationships between themselves and with US.

      His 2 most known books are: “The great chess board” where he actually justifies the idea of American domination. And the other one written many years later: “Strategic Vision. America and the Crisis of Global Power” where he actually admits the crisis of the global power and shifting the influence to Asia.

      Really

      Reply
  3. Mad Dog

    The Ukraine was never Russia and this whole myth about Russia starting with the Rus in Kiev is just that. Kiev and the surrounding areas were part of something else and Muscovy was a different entity, so let’s just drop the pretense that they were one and the same. Further, the Soviet Union was just that, a union of soviet socialist republics and the borders were drawn by the commissars and included the Baltic states which were never ever part of Russia, many of the Stans which were never ever Russian and the Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, etc. Many people speak Russian in those areas but they lived in ostensibly freely associated republics. When Ukraine became independent, those commissar drawn borders were recognized as such, so the Ukraine, despite some Russian speakers and ethnic Russians (like in all the other places I mentioned) had the opportunity to leave or stay put (and, hurrah, there were no NKVD thugs to make sure they made the RIGHT decision!).

    So, tough luck, but the borders of the Ukraine were formed by Stalin and his minions and that is the way it should be, unless you like what Hitler did in the Sudetenland or the Soviet Union did to Poland after WWII (egads, why should they have been rewarded after their brutal invasion and massacre in Katyn Forest, etc.). The Ukrainians protested against corruption when Putin got his way with a threat against signing the European Agreement, and this started with young people calling for a stable operated under the rule of law and when Putin got the Ukrainian government to crack down on these idealistic young people, the protests became multi-generational and involved most classes. Sadly stranger, that kind of demonstration is no longer possible in Mother Russia, and dissent is slowly but surely being quashed. You should really worry about your safety as you are a bit too outspoken and may become labeled ‘unpatriotic’!

    Reply
    • Mr.Bushkin

      Quote: “So, tough luck, but the borders of the Ukraine were formed by Stalin and his minions and that is the way it should be, unless you like what Hitler did in the Sudetenland or the Soviet Union did to Poland after WWII (egads, why should they have been rewarded after their brutal invasion and massacre in Katyn Forest, etc.). […]”

      Then you support the secession of Crimea, which has been added to Ukraine by Chrushchov in 1950s.

      Reply
    • stranger

      Solzhenitsyn, staring from 60s and to the middle on 90th, on Russia and Ukraine. He predicted everything which became visible only now. I would highly recommend to read! Sorry only in Russian, if such things are ever translated to English, they are usually distorted according to the author’s position.

      http://buyaner.livejournal.com/148519.html

      3 parts, there are links to the second and the first parts.

      Ukrainians are Slavs as well as Russians, as well as Belorussians and Ukrainian language (forgive me Ukrainians) is basically a rather close dialect of Russian language. Kievian Rus was stretched far to the north and united the territories (much less than the modern ones) of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, in that sense it was a prototype of the single Slavic state. The western Slavs, Ukrainians, Belorussians were under a strong influence of Lithuania, Poland and Austria with a different religion, different culture. Eastern areas have never been Ukrainian, they were Russian provinces added to Ukr SSR by Bolsheviks who wanted to change actually the czar russian empire rule to a kind of federation of soviet republics. Bolsheviks thought that nationality would not make sense during communism (honestly most of Bolsheviks were not ethnical russians nor even Slavs, like their motto: ‘who was nothing – will be everything’, but i didn’t say that) and added a lot of historically russian provinces to Ukraine, in a similar way they attached Nagornyy Karabakh to Azerbaybzhan. To the best of my understanding that created a detonation mixture of eastern ukraine appealing to Russia, Crimea, which has been always russian culturally and the western ukraine historically anti-Russian.

      So Russia does have a lot of business with this all, and that has been a very old Slavic argument. The other question that Russia has not had a good strategy relating to Ukraine. Putin although he understands that in some own way and doesn’t want the split with Ukraine, and turning Ukraine into a hostile state, he is not controlling a lot, the military help to the rebels was the admission of the defeat of course like a last resort after the west in his opinion betrayed all the agreements and intruded into the area of always russian interests, and he is not like the best one who can solve this problem. If anybody ever can. That is not true that Russia has been hostile to Ukraine, Russia helped a lot with discounts to the gas, with loans which were never returned, with readiness to close the eye on everything just be our ally. On the other hand Russian-Ukrainian relationships would not be symmetrical as well as Ukrainian-European, large Russian government business might have swollen some of Ukrainian, so might be they preferred to bend over Europe instead, even though in the short term it would be less beneficial.

      The western anti-russian part of Ukraine got to the power now. That will not end well for Ukraine, it will not become a wealthy European state in any observable future, sorry. And the biggest mistake of ‘the west’ was to break into this old Slavic argument with quite understandable own geopolitical interests to split the biggest and closest ‘brother nations’. The biggest mistake was to break into that so carelessly and ignorantly. But only IMHO as well as everything else.

      Reply
    • stranger

      “Sadly stranger, that kind of demonstration is no longer possible in Mother Russia”
      Let put the question in the other way: why do we need a Maydan in Russia? The protest is not the aim by itself. What would be next?

      I remember too vividly the destruction of 90s, even though I was too young and had other interests and overall didn’t feel any limited, but looking back I can compare. I remember the terrorism in Moscow during Chechen wars.
      If there is a slight chance that Russia may collapse and that Caucasus is inflamed again and that oligarchy begin internal wars for the new redivision of property. Why may I even want a revolution?

      I can understand some in the west who are calling for a revolution, I can understand Ukrainians who are anti Russian or just regret that they has made a mistake but Russia has not (sarcasm, don’t take literally). I can understand the Putins personal enemy Khodorkovskiy, before that it was the same with Berezovskiy, who did really a lot of troubles to Russia. While the former is much more polite and looking intelligentlier, they are both the same kind of wild, unprincipled, 90s years’ oligarchs from the era of ‘initial capital accumulation’. That is not going to help Russia, or at least that is what they care less of all – the only problem.

      “and dissent is slowly but surely being quashed.”
      Well, first of all there are no sa_ne dissents who know what to do and who are trusted by people.

      “You should really worry about your safety as you are a bit too outspoken and may become labeled ‘unpatriotic’!”
      Believe me there are many more ‘unpatriots’ much more ‘unpatriotic’ than I am. Take a look at the Echo of Moscow comments section for example. All those authors you like to cite etc. Basically everybody can say whatever one wants, it is better to avoid swast1ka and requests to a violence against social or ethnical groups. But what the special services only care about as far as I understand is the possible destabilization and unrests like a kind of Maydan.

      Navalny may be a special case since he disturbs many influential people. He is a locomotive of the protest and perhaps he is allowed to do it until he is not taken too seriously. But he is rather controversial figure anyway…

      Again I don’t see a good scenario how the revolution may end. You suppose that it is going to be like US or EU ‘wealthy and open’ society, but I imagine the county’s collapse, local wars, new oligarchs controlling mass media and the government and the country drained dry by global corporations, exactly as it was in 90s.

      So.. Not at this moment and not in this way at least, will see then.

      Reply
    • stranger

      “the Soviet Union did to Poland after WWII” by the historical irony, if USSR had not had joined the part of the polish territory to Ukraine, all those Ukrainian nationalists including Bandera would have been left in Poland and still would be fighting for the independence, but in the neighbour country or perhaps would be quite happy with EU passports. By attaching Polish areas populated mostly by ethnical Ukrainians, which is now mostly anti Russian western Ukraine, Russia has lost all Ukraine almost a century later.

      Reply
    • stranger

      And as for Maydan – it started as young students with shining eyes, it ended with snipers who killed both police and demonstrants reportedly at the same time and allergedly from the opposition. So don’t call it a peaceful protest, instead the ending might have been plotted, or just went out of control when the fire arms appeared. Maydan stayed for more than 3 months, but only after the blood shed had started Yanukovich fled.

      Reply
      • Sammy3

        What about the Russian FSB that was there? There’s video…

        You Putin trolls can’t imagine people protesting for a better life without corruption. It’s all a CIA conspiracy.

        Do Russians prefer a life under corruption? It’s been a way of life for so long you are just used to it?

        What about the change in the Russian election dates? That’s all moved forward,

        Whataboutism, Russia’s specialty.

        Reply
  4. Mr.Bushkin

    Quote: “The Ukraine was never Russia and this whole myth about Russia starting with the Rus in Kiev is just that. Kiev and the surrounding areas were part of something else and Muscovy was a different entity, so let’s just drop the pretense that they were one and the same. […]”

    The first capitol was Novgorod, which has been moved to Kiev later. At some point Kievan Rus has fragmented into several duchies, which later have been overrun by the Golden Horde one by one.

    Reply
    • John Zenwirt

      When Muscovy was log cabins and mud, Kiev’s Golden domes were home to a great, powerful, intellectual, cultural, civil society…

      But the Moscow-ites had the advantage of “interior lines” of transport and communication. No one cares to invade them, (excepting Vikings slave-trade) because there are no resources there, just endless forests…to live, Moscow must expand to gather others’ resources. They naturally moved outwards. As we know (I read Troyat’s biography) this occurred mostly under Catherine the Great…Her lover set successful southern expeditions…

      Reply
      • stranger

        “Kiev’s Golden domes were home to a great, powerful, intellectual, cultural, civil society”
        Kiev became so when it became the capital of the Kievian Rus, after it was captured by the Duke Oleg, who came from the north, from Novgorod, which is modern Russia. Oleg had Scandinavian, Viking roots, the dynasty of Rurics. So we can think that Swedes established the first large Slavic state including modern Ukraine, Belarus and the European part of Russia. Later it split into multiple kingdoms between relatives of the first dukes. So those were literally brother countries, ruled by brothers – dukes. Then Mongols devastated and submitted that territory including Kiev for a couple of centuries, western Ukraine came under Poles. Not sure about the history of Kiev before Oleg’s invasion, but the famous and glorious Kievian Rus started after after the uniting large Slavic areas. So that is not true to repeat Ukrainian nationalists that Kievian Rus was related to only Ukraine and Moscovities are allergedly a different nation. All three Slavic nations have a common history and were united once under the Kievian Rus, and then under the Russian Empire and then USSR. That is not true that Russia has nothing to do with Kievian Rus, as Mad Dog tries to convince us.

        Reply
    • stranger

      The historical lesson is that when Slaves were united under Kievian Rus, they were strong and prosperous. When the dukes split into hundreds of small kingdoms, even they were brothers and other relatives, but hostile to each other, Mongols captured them easily one by one.
      The same parallel is for today, if Ukraine and later potentially Belarus is torn away from Russia and even incited against Russia, both will be weak and easy to conquer in some or another sense. That’s why US has so much interests in Ukraine at the moment.
      Would you say that today it is all different, Ukraine wants to be a part of Europe? Yes, if Ukraine were equal to Europe, compatible and able to join, that would be true. Otherwise it is a big question with whom to ally first.
      The other different problem is what Russia is able to propose now, and how Ukrainians are willing and able to come to a mutually beneficial compromise and how our Putin is suitable for a such historical role to keep Slavs together, and that is another difficult question.

      Reply
  5. John Zenwirt

    COPENHAGEN – NAT0 naval forces are participating in German-led Exercise Northern Coasts 16 in the Baltic Sea.

    Standing NAT0 Maritime Group One (SNMG1) and Standing NAT0 Mine Countermeasures Group One (SNMCMG1) are taking part in this large-scale exercise designed to provide participants with relevant training in a fictitious but realistic scenario.

    Up to 38 naval units, including submarines from 16 NAT0 and partner nations, are participating with focus on underwater and above the water warfare.

    http://tinyurl.com/jbdoqgu (NAT0)

    Reply
  6. John Zenwirt

    Why Russians like Vladimir Putin’s Wars.

    Autocratic regimes like Russia realize that public opinion and legitimacy are important for maintaining power. Therefore, they try to control what information their citizens can access by tightly controlling the press and the Internet. This manipulation has been on display in Russia’s ongoing conflict with Ukraine.

    http://tinyurl.com/hwml6w9 (WashPost)

    Reply
    • stranger

      “Psychology literature and our findings suggest two message strategies for correcting Russian beliefs.”
      “Let make them feel the cost of Crimea attachment!”
      well, the approach is wrong originally. It should not be to ‘correct beliefs’, but to understand and try to negotiate and respect the interests of all parties. Really, how are you going to approach Russian audience with such believes? That article is targeted only to the internal western audience who wants to feel own superiority above Russians, which exists only in their empty heads. In Russia that is going to fail right away just because. Try to replace Russian with Jew in this article and go to Israel with such approach, you would see immediately how far away and for how long time you will be sent. Really, just a shame and a piece of garbge.

      Reply
    • stranger

      As for ‘let’s make them to feel the cost of crimea, let’s make them to pay for that a huge price’ from the article, everybody has felt the cost, the national currency has fallen in 2 times, so all people have become 2 times poorer, though that is usually related to such a deed of nature as the oil price drop.
      Ukraine has also felt the cost of euro-integration even deeper, their currency has fallen in 3 times.
      Everybody has felt, what else they are going to explain to Russians – I don’t really understand.

      Reply
  7. John Zenwirt

    The influence of Russian media, however, is only half of the equation explaining the foreign policy preferences of the Russian public. The other half is a natural psychological process called “motivated reasoning” that commonly occurs among Americans as well. When we have strongly held beliefs, we tend to discount or avoid information that may somehow counter these beliefs.

    For many Russians, pro-government or strong nationalist sentiment may act as mental screens that increase the persuasiveness of Russian media and increase resistance to other points of view. While recognizing the limits created by these screens, our study asked if Russian public opinion about Russia’s foreign policy would be different if the public was exposed to independent information about its costs. (Link above)

    Reply
  8. Sammy3

    I still don’t understand why stranger, and others think that Russia and Ukraine are going to be BFF again.

    This is delusional.

    If Russia isn’t involved, why don’t they want UN peace keepers?

    If Russia isn’t involved, they should have no objection of the EU putting Anti-aircraft missles in eastern Ukraine since, since the “rebels” don’t posses any aircraft ?

    Reply
    • stranger

      You are more than welcome to come and try. Do you wanna me to gift you a hard-hat? Or are you going to win a referendum there to join Ukraine?

      Reply

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